Nelson Cowan - Memory and Attention in Human Cognition    
          Publications
 

 

Books

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Courage, M.L., & Cowan, N. (Eds.). (2009). The development of memory in infancy and childhood. Hove, U.K.: Psychology Press.

Cowan, N. (2005).  Working memory capacity. Hove, East Sussex, UK:  Psychology Press.

Cowan, N. (Ed.) (1997). The development of memory in childhood. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press. (Paperback edition: 1997)

Cowan, N. (1995). Attention and memory: An integrated framework. Oxford Psychology Series (No. 26). New York: Oxford University Press. (Paperback edition: 1997)

 

 

Journal Articles, Book Chapters and Reviews

(as of June 30, 2015.  Approximately newest to oldest.)

To request electronic copies or reprints click the PDF Journal Article below and an email containing the article will be sent to you, or email Nelson Cowan at CowanN@missouri.edu.

IN PRESS:

Hardman, K.O., & Cowan, N. (in press). Reasoning and memory: People make varied use of the information available in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Cowan, N. (in press). Working memory maturation: Can we get at the essence of cognitive growth? Perspectives on Psychological Science.

Cowan, N. (in press). Exploring the possible and necessary in working memory development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development.
(Commentary on article by Vanessa R. Simmering, Working memory capacity in context: Modeling dynamic processes of behavior, memory, and development)

Green, S.B., Yang, Y., Alt, M., Brinkley, S., Gray, S., Hogan, T., & Cowan, N. (in press). Use of internal consistency coefficients for estimating reliability of experimental task scores. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Vergauwe, E.A., & Cowan, N. (in press). Working memory units are all in your head: Factors that influence whether features or objects are the favored units. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Cowan, N., Hardman, K., Saults, J.S., Blume, C.L., Clark, K.M., & Sunday, M.A. (in press). Detection of the number of changes in a display in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

PUBLISHED:

Majerus, S., Cowan, N., Péters, F., Van Calster, L., Phillips, C., & Schrouff, J. (2016). Cross-modal decoding of neural patterns associated with working memory: Evidence for attention-based accounts of working memory.Cerebral Cortex, 26,166-179.

Blume, C.L. & Cowan, N. (2016). On the use of response chunking as a tool to investigate strategies. Frontiers in Psychology, 19.

Öztekin, I., & Cowan, N. (2015). Representational states in memory: Where do we stand? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Hardman, K., & Cowan, N. (2015). Remembering complex objects in visual working memory: Do capacity limits restrict objects or features? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 325-347.

Logie, R.H., & Cowan, N. (2015). Perspectives on working memory: Introduction to the special issue. Memory and Cognition, 43, 315–324

Vergauwe, E., & Cowan, N. (2015). Theories of short-term memory. In J.D. Wright, editor in chief, International Encyclopedia of Social & Behavioral Science (second edition, Vol. 21). Oxford, UK: Elsevier. (pp. 901-908)

Cowan, N. (2015). Sensational memorability: Working memory for things we see hear, feel, or somehow sense. In C. LeFebvre, P. Jolicoeur, & J. Martinez-Trujillo (eds.), Mechanisms of Sensory Working Memory. Elsevier. (pp. 5-22)

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., Clark, K.M. (2015). Exploring age differences in visual working memory capacity: Is there a contribution of memory for configuration?  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 135, 72-85.

Cowan, N. (2015). George Miller’s magical number of immediate memory in retrospect:  Observations on the faltering progression of science. Psychological Review, 122, 536-41.

Cowan, N. (2015). Second-language use, theories of working memory, and the Vennian mind.  In Z. Wen, M.B. Mota, & A. McNeill (eds.), Working memory in second language acquisition and processing. Bristol, UK:  Multilingual Matters. (pp. 29-40)

Cowan, N. & Vergauwe, E.A. (2015). Applying how adults rehearse to understand how rehearsal may develop. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01538

Li, D., Christ, S.E., Johnson, J.D., & Cowan, N. (2015). Attention and Memory. In, Brain mapping: An encyclopedic reference.Elsevier.

Cowan, N., Ricker, T.J., Clark, K.M., Hinrichs, G.A., & Glass, B.A. (2015). Knowledge cannot explain the developmental growth of working memory capacity.  Developmental Science, 18, 132-145.

Li, D., & Cowan, N. (2015). Auditory memory. In D. Jaeger & R. Jung (eds.), Encyclopedia of computational neuroscience. Springer. (pp. 236-238)

Vergauwe, E.A., & Cowan, N. (2015). Attending to items in working memory: Evidence that refreshing and memory search are closely related. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1001-1006.

Ricker, T.J., Vergauwe, E., Hinrichs, G.A., Blume, C.L., & Cowan, N. (2014). No recovery of memory when cognitive load is decreased. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.On line ahead of print, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000084

Dewar, M., Alber, J., Cowan, N., & Della Sala, S. (2014). Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: Intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient. PLOS One 9(10), e109542, 1-10.

Gilchrist, A.L., & Cowan, N. (2014). A two-stage search of visual working memory: Investigating speed in the change-detection paradigm. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 2031–2050.

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., & Blume, C.L. (2014). Central and peripheral components of working memory storage. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 1806-1836.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., Maddox, G., Thomas, J., Fine, H., Chen, T., & Cowan, N. (2014). Older adults don’t notice their names: A new twist to a classic attention task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 1540-1550.

Ricker, T.J., Spiegel, L.R., & Cowan, N. (2014). Time-based loss in visual short-term memory is from trace decay, not temporal distinctiveness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 1510-1523.

Ricker, T.J., Vergauwe, E., & Cowan, N. (2014). Decay theory of immediate memory: From Brown (1958) to today (2014). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. E-pub ahead of print.

Vergauwe, E., & Cowan, N. (2014). Assessing and revising the plan for intelligence testing. Journal of Intelligence, 2, 29-32. doi:10.3390/jintelligence2020029

Li, D., Christ, S.E., & Cowan, N. (2014).  Domain-general and domain-specific functional networks in working memory.  Neuroimage, 102, 646-656.

Vergauwe, E., & Cowan, N. (2014). A common short-term memory retrieval rate may describe many cognitive procedures. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8 (article 126), 1-7. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00126

Lutfi-Proctor, D.A., Elliott, E.M., & Cowan, N. (2014). The role of visual stimuli in cross-modal stroop interference. PsyCh Journal, 3, 17-29.

Ricker, T.J., & Cowan, N. (2014).  Differences between presentation methods in working memory procedures: A matter of working memory consolidation.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40,  417-428.

Cowan, N. (2014). Working memory underpins cognitive development, learning, and education. Educational Psychology Review, 26, 197-223. DOI: 10.1007/s10648-013-9246-y.

Cowan, N., Donnell, K., & Saults, J.S. (2013). A list-length constraint on incidental item-to-item associations. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1253 -1258.

Cowan, N. (2013). Working memory. In H. Pashler (ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind. Sage.

Cowan, N., & Saults, J.S. (2013). When Does a Good Working Memory Counteract Proactive Interference?
Surprising Evidence From a Probe Recognition Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142 (1), 12-17.

Li, D., Cowan, N., & Saults, J.S. (2013). Estimating working memory capacity for lists of nonverbal sounds. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75, 145-160.

Chen, Z., & Cowan, N. (2013). Working memory inefficiency: Minimal information is utilized in visual recognition tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1449-1462.

Cowan, N. (2013). Short-term and working memory in childhood. In P.J. Bauer and R. Fivush (eds.), Handbook on the development of children’s memory. Wiley-Blackwell.

Cowan, N., Blume, C.L., & Saults, J.S. (2013). Attention to attributes and objects in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 39 (3), 731-747.

Hackley, S.A., & Cowan, N. (2012). In memory of David G. McDonald, 1933-2012. Experimental Psychology Bulletin, 16, 13-14.
http://www.apa.org/divisions/div3/Fall2012newsletter.pdf

Cowan, N. (2012). Working memory: the seat of learning and comprehension. In Della Sala, S., & Anderson, M. (eds), Neuroscience in education: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (pp. 111-127)

Cowan, N., Rouder, J.N., Blume, C.L., & Saults, J.S. (2012). Models of verbal working memory capacity: What does it take to make them work? Psychological Review, 119 (3), 480-499.

Dewar, M., Alber, J., Butler, C., Cowan, N., & Della Sala, S. (2012). Brief wakeful resting boosts new memories over the long term. Psychological Science, 23, 955-960.


Dewar, M., Pesallaccia, M., Cowan, N., Provinciali, L., & Della Sala, S. (2012). Insights into spared memory capacity in amnestic MCI and Alzheimer’s Disease via minimal interference. Brain and Cognition, 78, 189-199.

Gilchrist, A.L., & Cowan, N. (2012). Chunking. In V. Ramachandran (ed.) Encyclopedia of human behavior, Vol. 1.  San Diego: Academic Press. (pp. 476-483)

Cowan, N. (2012). Focused and divided attention to the eyes and ears: A research journey. In J.M. Wolfe & L. Robertson, Festschrift for Ann Treisman. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Becker, T. M., Cicero, D. C., Cowan, N., & Kerns, J. G. (2012). Cognitive control components and speech symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 196, 20-26.

Gilchrist, A.L., & Cowan, N. (2011). Can the focus of attention accommodate multiple separate items? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37 (6), 1484-1502.

Cowan, N., AuBuchon, A.M., Gilchrist, A.L., Ricker, T.J., & Saults, J.S. (2011). Age differences in visual working memory capacity: Not based on encoding limitations. Developmental Science, 14, 1066-1074. PMC3177168

Cowan, N. (2011). The focus of attention as observed in visual working memory tasks: Making sense of competing claims. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1401-1406. PMC3095706

Rouder, J.N., Morey, R.D., Morey, C.C., & Cowan, N. (2011). How to measure working-memory capacity in the change-detection paradigm. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 324-330. PMC3070885

Cowan, N., Li, D., Moffitt, A., Becker, T.M., Martin, E.A., Saults, J.S., & Christ, S.E. (2011). A neural region of abstract working memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2852-2863. PMC3138911

Morey, C.C., Cowan, N., Morey, R.D., & Rouder, J.N. (2011). Flexible attention allocation to visual and auditory working memory tasks: Manipulating reward induces a tradeoff. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 458–472. PMC3037478

Cowan, N. (2011). Covert pronunciation and rehearsal. In N.M. Seel (ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6.

Cowan, N., Morey, C.C., AuBuchon, A.M., Zwilling, C.E., Gilchrist, A.L., & Saults, J.S. (2011). New insights into an old problem: Distinguishing storage from processing in the development of working memory. In P. Barrouillet & V. Gaillard (eds.), Cognitive development and working memory: A dialogue between neo-Piagetian theories and cognitive approaches. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. (pp. 137-150)

Cowan, N. (2011). Working memory and attention in language use. In J. Guendouzi, F. Loncke, & M.J. Williams (eds.), The Handbook of psycholinguistic and cognitive processes: Perspectives in communication disorders. New York: Taylor & Francis. (pp. 75-97)

Cowan, N., Hismjatullina, A., AuBuchon, A.M., Saults, J.S., Horton, N., Leadbitter, K., & Towse, J. (2010). With development, list recall includes more chunks, not just larger ones. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1119-1131.

Lee, E., Cowan, N., Vogel, E.K., Rolan, T., Valle-Inclán, F., & Hackley, S.A. (2010). Visual working memory deficits in Parkinson’s patients are due to both reduced storage capacity and impaired ability to filter out irrelevant information. Brain, 133, 2677-2689.

Ricker, T.J., & Cowan, N. (2010). Loss of visual working memory within seconds: The combined use of refreshable and non-refreshable features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36, 1355-1368. PMCID: PMC2970679

Ricker, T.J., Cowan, N., & Morey, C.C. (2010). Visual working memory is disrupted by covert verbal retrieval. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17, 516-521. PMC3050528

Dewar, M., Della Sala, S., Beschin, N., & Cowan, N. (2010). Profound retroactive interference in anterograde amnesia: What interferes? Neuropsychology, 24, 357-367.

Cowan, N. (2010). Multiple concurrent thoughts: The meaning and developmental neuropsychology of working memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 447-474.

Ricker, T.J., AuBuchon, A., & Cowan, N. (2010). Working memory. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1, 573-585.

Cowan, N. (2010). The magical mystery four: How is working memory capacity limited, and why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 51-57.

Gilchrist, A.L., & Cowan, N. (2010). Conscious and unconscious aspects of working memory. In I. Winkler & I. Czigler (eds.), Unconscious memory representations in perception: Processes and mechanisms in the brain. Advances in Consciousness research. Vol. 78. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (Pp. 1-35)

Dewar, M.T., Della Sala, S., & Cowan, N. (2010). Forgetting due to retroactive interference in amnesia: Findings and implications. In S. Della Sala, Forgetting. Current Issues in Memory. Psychology Press. (Pp. 185-209)

Cowan, N., Morey, C.C., AuBuchon, A.M., Zwilling, C.E., & Gilchrist, A.L. (2010). Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded. Developmental Science, 13, 120-133.

Cowan, N. (5 November, 2009). Disproving myself. Psychology Today, web log (listed as an Essential Read on the Psychology Today web site, 5 November 2009).


Gilchrist, A.L., Cowan, N., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2009). Investigating the childhood development of working memory using sentences: New evidence for the growth of chunk capacity.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 252-265.



Cowan, N. (2009). Capacity limits and consciousness. In T. Baynes, A. Cleeremans, & P. Wilken (Eds.), Oxford Companion to Consciousness.(pp. 127-130).  New York: Oxford University. 


Cowan, N. (2009, February 23). By their bootstraps: Brain imaging in the Show-Me State.
RT Image, 22(8), 1-4.



Cowan, N. (2009, March). President's Message: A Brief History of Experimental Psychology, 1850 - 2125. The Experimental Psychology Bulletin, 13, 1.



Cowan, N., & Rouder, J.N. (2009, February 13). Comment on "Dynamic Shifts of Limited Working Memory Resources in Human Vision". Science, 323, 877c. 



Cowan, N. (2009). Sensory and Immediate Memory. In W.P. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Consciousness.(Vol.2, pp. 327-339).  Oxford: Elsevier. 



Cowan, N. (2009). 
Working Memory from the Trailing Edge of Consciousness to Neurons. [Review of T. Klingberg, The Overflowing Brain: Information Overload and the Limits of Working Memory].  Neuron, 62, 13 - 16. 

   

Cowan, N., & Alloway, T. (2009). Development of Working Memory In Childhood.  In M.L. Courage & N. Cowan (Eds.), The development of memory in infancy and childhood.  Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press, 303-342. 

   

Cowan, N., & Chen, Z. (2009). How chunks form in long-term memory and affect short-term memory limits. In A. Thorn & M. Page (Eds.), Interactions between short-term and long-term memory in the verbal domain (pp. 86-101). Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press. 

   

Chen, Z., & Cowan, N. (2009). How verbal memory loads consume attention. Memory & Cognition, 37, 829-836.



Dewar, M., Fernandez Garcia, Y., Cowan, N., & Della Sala, S. (2009). Delaying interference enhances memory consolidation in amnesic patients. Neuropsychology, 23, 627-634.



Chen, Z., & Cowan, N. (2009). Core verbal working-memory capacity: The limit in words retained without covert articulation.
The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 1420–1429



Cowan, N. (2008, September). Arrogance, social consensus, and experimental psychology. APA Division 3 presidential essay. The Experimental Psychology Bulletin, 12(2) posted at http://www.apa.org/divisions/div3/Newsletter2008-12-2/Newsletter2008-12-2-a.htm

Cowan, N., & AuBuchon, A.M. (2008).  Short-term memory loss over time without retroactive stimulus interference.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(1), 230-235. 

Cowan, N. (2008).  Sensory Memory.  In H. L. Roediger, III (Ed.) & J. Byrne (Vol. Ed.), Cognitive Psychology of Memory:  Vol. 2. Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference, 4 vols. (pp. 23-32). Oxford: Elsevier. 

Cowan, N. (2008).  Working Memory.  In N.J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1015-1016).  London:  Sage Publications. 

Cowan, N. (2008, June/July). The rest of the story: The size of thought. Scientific American Mind, 32-35. [Commentary on McCollough & Vogel, "Your inner spam filter:  What makes you so smart?  Might be your lizard brain."] 

 

Cowan, N. (2008).  What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?.  In W.S. Sossin, J.-C. Lacaille, V.F. Castellucci & S. Belleville (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research: Vol. 169. Essence of Memory (pp. 323-338).  Amsterdam:  Elsevier B.V.

Cowan, N., Morey, C.C., Chen, Z., Gilchrist, A.L., & Saults, J.S. (2008). Theory and measurement of working memory capacity limits. In B.H. Ross (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 49, pp. 49-104). Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V. 

 

Gilchrist, A.L., Cowan, N., & Naveh-Benjamin, M. (2008).  Working memory capacity for spoken sentences decreases with adult aging: Recall of fewer, but not smaller chunks in older adults.  Memory, 16(7), 773-787. 

Rouder, J.N., Morey, R.D., Cowan, N., Zwilling, C.E., Morey, C.C., & Pratte, M.S. (2008).  An assessment of fixed-capacity models of visual working memory.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 105(16), 5975–5979. 



Cowan, N. (2008, March). Autobiography of the president-elect. The Experimental Psychology Bulletin, 12, #1 posted at
http://www.apa.org/divisions/div3/Newsletter2008-12-1/Newsletter2008-12-1-b.htm

Towse, J.N., Cowan, N., Horton, N.J., & Whytock, S. (2008).  Task experience and children's working memory performance:  A perspective from recall timing.  Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 695-706.  

Towse, J.N., Cowan, N., Hitch, G.J., & Horton, N.J. (2008). The recall of information from working memory: Insights from behavioural and chronometric perspectives. Experimental Psychology, 55(6), 371-383.

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Bunting, M.F., Cowan, N., & Colflesh, G.H. (2008)
. The deployment of attention in short-term memory tasks:  Tradeoffs between immediate and delayed deployment. Memory & Cognition, 36(4), 799-812. 



Shelton, J.T., Elliott, E.M., Cowan, N. (2008). Attention and working memory: Tools for understanding consciousness. Psyche, 14(1).

http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/2261.pdf

Halford, G.S., Cowan, N., & Andrews, G. (2007). Separating cognitive capacity from knowledge: A new hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(6), 236-242.

Saults, J.S., Cowan, N., Sher, K.J., & Moreno, M.V.  (2007). Differential effects of alcohol on working memory:  Distinguishing multiple processes.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 15(6), 576–587. 

Saults, J.S., & Cowan, N. (2007). A central capacity limit to the simultaneous storage of visual and auditory arrays in working memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136(4), 663-684. 

Cowan, N., & Morey, C.C. (2007). How can dual-task working memory retention limits be investigated? Psychological Science, 18(8), 686-688.

Cowan, N. (2007). What can infants tell us about working memory development? In L.M. Oakes & P.J. Bauer (Eds.), Short- and long- term memory in infancy and early childhood: Taking the first steps toward remembering (pp. 126-150). New York: Oxford University Press.



Dewar, M.T., Cowan, N., & Della Sala, S. (2007). Forgetting due to retroactive interference: A fusion of Müller and Pilzecker’s (1900) early insights into everyday forgetting and recent research on anterograde amnesia. Cortex, 43(5), 616-634.

Naveh-Benjamin, M., Cowan, N., Kilb, A., & Chen, Z. (2007). Age-related differences in immediate serial recall: Dissociating chunk formation and capacity. Memory & Cognition, 35(4), 724-737.

Cowan, N., Morey, C.C., Chen, Z., & Bunting, M.F. (2007). What do estimates of working memory capacity tell us? In N. Osaka, R. Logie, & M. D’Esposito (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of working memory: Behavioral and neural correlates (pp. 43-58). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Cowan, N., Morey, C.C., & Chen, Z. (2007). The legend of the magical number seven. In S. Della Sala (Ed.), Tall tales about the mind & brain: Separating fact from fiction (pp. 45-59). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Bunting, M.F., Cowan, N., & Saults, J.S. (2006). How does running memory span work? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59(10), 1691-1700.

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., & Morey, C.C. (2006). Development of working memory for verbal-spatial associations. Journal of Memory and Language, 55(2), 274-289.

Cowan, N., & Morey, C.C. (2006). Visual working memory depends on attentional filtering. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(4), 139-141.

Cowan, N., Fristoe, N.M., Elliott, E.M., Brunner, R.P., & Saults, J.S. (2006). Scope of attention, control of attention, and intelligence in children and adults. Memory & Cognition, 34(8), 1754-1768.

Cowan, N., Kane, M.J., Conway, A.R.A., & Ispa-Cowan, A.J. (2006). Stupid brain! Homer’s working memory odyssey. In A. Brown, The psychology of the Simpsons: D'Oh! (pp. 49-64). Dallas: BenBella Books.

Cowan, N., Naveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., & Saults, J.S. (2006). Life-Span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult? Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1089-1102.

Cowan, N., Elliott, E.M., Saults, J.S., Nugent, L.D., Bomb, P., & Hismjatullina, A. (2006). Rethinking speed theories of cognitive development: Increasing the rate of recall without affecting accuracy. Psychological Science, 17(1), 67-73.

Cowan, N. (2006). Within fluid cognition: Fluid processing and fluid storage? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29(2), 129-130. Commentary on C. Blair target article.

Elliott, E.M., Barrilleaux, K.M., & Cowan, N. (2006). Individual differences in the ability to avoid distracting sounds. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 18(1), 90-108.

Chen, Z., & Cowan, N. (2005). Chunk limits and length limits in immediate recall: A reconciliation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(6), 1235-1249.

Cowan, N., Elliott, E.M., Saults, J.S., Morey, C.C., Mattox, S., Hismjatullina, A., & Conway, A.R.A. (2005). On the capacity of attention: Its estimation and its role in working memory and cognitive aptitudes. Cognitive Psychology, 51, 42-100.

Cowan, N., Johnson, T.D., & Saults, J.S. (2005). Capacity limits in list item recognition: Evidence from proactive interference. Memory, 13(3/4), 293-299.

Yiend, J., Mathews, A., & Cowan, N. (2005). Selective attention tasks in clinical and cognitive research. In A. Wenzel and D.C. Rubin (Eds.), Cognitive methods and their application to clinical research (pp. 65 – 71). Washington, D.C.: APA Books.

Cowan, N. (2005). Selective attention tasks in cognitive research. In A. Wenzel and D.C. Rubin (Eds.), Cognitive methods and their application to clinical research (pp. 73 – 96). Washington, D.C.: APA Books.

Morey, C.C., & Cowan, N. (2005). When do visual and verbal memories conflict? The importance of working-memory load and retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(4), 703-713.

Bunting, M.F., & Cowan, N. (2005). Working memory and flexibility in awareness and attention. Psychological Research, 69, 412-419.

Elliott, E.M., & Cowan, N. (2005). Coherence of the irrelevant-sound effect: Individual profiles of short-term memory and susceptibility to task-irrelevant materials. Memory & Cognition, 33(4), 664-675.

Cowan, N. (2005). Understanding intelligence: A summary and an adjustable-attention hypothesis. In O. Wilhelm & R.W. Engle (Eds.), Handbook of understanding and measuring intelligence (pp. 469-488). London: Sage.

Winkler, I., & Cowan, N. (2005). From sensory to long term memory: Evidence from auditory memory reactivation studies. Experimental Psychology, 52(1), 3-20.

Della Sala, S., Cowan, N., Beschin, N., & Perini, M. (2005). Just lying there, remembering: Improving recall of prose in amnesic patients with mild cognitive impairment by minimizing interference. Memory, 13(3/4), 435-440.

Towse, J., & Cowan, N. (2005). Working memory and its relevance for cognitive development. In W. Schneider, R. Schumann-Hengsteler, & B. Sodian (Eds.), Young children’s cognitive development: Interrelationships among executive functioning, working memory, verbal ability, and theory of mind (pp. 9-37). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cowan, N. (2005). Working-memory capacity limits in a theoretical context. In C. Izawa & N. Ohta (Eds.), Human learning and memory: Advances In theory and applications (pp. 155-175). The 4th Tsukuba international conference on memory. Erlbaum.

Jarrold, C., Cowan, N., Hewes, A.K., & Riby, D.M. (2004). Speech timing and verbal short-term memory: Evidence for contrasting deficits in Down syndrome and Williams syndrome. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 365-380.

Cowan, N., Beschin, N., & Della Sala, S. (2004). Verbal recall in amnesiacs under conditions of diminished retroactive interference. Brain, 127, 825-834.

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., & Brown, G.D.A. (2004). On the auditory modality superiority effect in serial recall: Separating input and output factors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30, 639-644.

Rouder, J.N., Morey, R.D., Cowan, N., & Pfaltz, M. (2004). Learning in a unidimensional absolute identification task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 938-944.

Cowan, N., Chen, Z., & Rouder, J.N. (2004). Constant capacity in an immediate serial-recall task: A logical sequel to Miller (1956). Psychological Science, 15, 634-640.

Morey, C.C., & Cowan, N. (2004). When visual and verbal memories compete: Evidence of cross-domain limits in working memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 296-301.

Cowan, N. (2004). On the psychophysics of memory. In C. Kaernbach, E. Schröger, & H. Müller (Eds.), Psychophysics beyond sensation: Laws and invariants of human cognition (pp. 313-319). Scientific Psychology Series. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cowan, N.  (2003).  Varieties of procedural accounts of working memory retention systems.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26, 731-732.  (Commentary on target article by Ruchkin et al.)

Cowan, N., Towse, J.N., Hamilton, Z., Saults, J.S., Elliott, E.M., Lacey, J.F., Moreno, M.V., & Hitch, G.J. (2003). Children's working-memory processes: A response-timing analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 113-132.

Cowan, N. (2003).  Comparisons of developmental modeling frameworks and levels of analysis in cognition:  Connectionist and dynamic systems theories deserve attention, but don't yet explain attention.  In J.P. Spencer & E. Thelen (Eds.) (2002).  Connectionism and dynamic systems approaches to development [Special issue].  Developmental Science, 6, 440-447.

Cowan, N. (2003).  Preserving the spirit and respect of academia through traditions.  APS Observer, 16, 10.  (American Psychological Society)

Gardiner, J.M., & Cowan, N. (2003).  Modality effects.  In J.H. Byrne, H. Eichenbaum, H.Roediger III, & R.F. Thompson (Eds.), Learning and Memory (2nd ed., pp. 397-400) ).  New York, NY:  Macmillan.

Cowan, N., Baddeley, A.D., Elliott, E.M., & Norris, J. (2003). List composition and the word length effect in immediate recall: A comparison of localist and globalist assumptions. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 74-79.

Crowder, R.G., & Cowan, N. (2003). Sensory memory. Revision by N. Cowan of first-edition entry by Robert G. Crowder. In J.H. Byrne, H. Eichenbaum, H.Roediger III, & R.F. Thompson (Eds.), Learning and Memory (2nd ed., pp. 607-609). Macmillan.

Cowan, N. (2002). Childhood development of working memory: An examination of two basic parameters. In P. Graf and N. Ohta, Lifespan development of human memory (pp. 39 - 57). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Winkler, I., Korzyukov, O., Gumenyuk, V., Cowan, N., Linkenkaer-Hansen, K., Ilmoniemi, R.J., Alho, K., & Näätänen, R. (2002). Temporary and longer term retention of acoustic information. Psychophysiology, 39, 530-534.

Cowan, N. (2002). Experimental psychology and its implications for human development. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Oxford, U.K.

Conway, A.R.A., Cowan, N., Bunting, M.F., Therriault, D.J., & Minkoff, S.R.B. (2002). A latent variable analysis of working memory capacity, short-term memory capacity, processing speed, and general fluid intelligence. Intelligence, 30, 163-183.

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., & Elliott, E.M.. (2002). The search for what is fundamental in the development of working memory. In R. Kail & H. Reese (Eds.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 29, 1-49.

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., Elliott, E.M., & Moreno, M. (2002). Deconfounding serial recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 153-177.

Cowan, N. (2000/01). Processing limits of selective attention and working memory: Potential implications for interpreting. Interpreting, 5, 117-146.

Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87-185.

*Included in the above: Cowan, N. (2001). Metatheory of storage capacity limits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 154-176. (Reply to commentaries)

Elliott, E.M., & Cowan, N. (2001). Habituation to auditory distractors in a cross-modal, color-word interference task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 27, 654-667.

Conway, R.A., Cowan, N., & Bunting, M.F. (2001). The cocktail party phenomenon revisited: The importance of working memory capacity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 331-335.

Cowan, N., Saults, S., & Nugent, L. (2001). The ravages of absolute and relative amounts of time on memory. In H.L. Roediger III, J.S. Nairne, I. Neath, & A. Surprenant (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 315 - 330). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Winkler, I., Schröger, E., & Cowan, N. (2001). The role of large-scale memory organization in the mismatch negativity event-related brain potential. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, 59-71.

Gomes, H., Molholm, S., Ritter, W., Kurtzberg, D., Cowan, N., & Vaughan, Jr., H.G. (2000). Mismatch negativity in children and adults, and effects of an attended task. Psychophysiology, 37, 807-816.

Cowan, N., Rouder, J.N., & Stadler, M.A. (2000). Conjuring a work from the dream time of cognitive psychology. American Journal of Psychology, 113, 639-671.

Cowan, N. (2000). Childhood development of some basic parameters of working memory. In E. Schröger, A. Mecklinger, & A.D. Friederici (Eds.), Working on working memory. Leipzig Series in Cognitive Sciences 1. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag.

Cowan, N., Nugent, L.D., Elliott, E.M., & Saults, J.S. (2000). Persistence of memory for ignored lists of digits: Areas of developmental constancy and change. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 76, 151-172.

Gomes, H., Molholm, Christodoulou, C., Ritter, W. & Cowan, N. (2000). The development of auditory attention in children. Frontiers in Bioscience, 5, 108-120.

Cowan, N., Nugent, L.D., Elliott, E.M., and Geer, T. (2000). Is there a temporal basis of the word length effect? A response to Service (1998). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A(3), 647-660.

Cowan, N., Nugent, L.D., & Elliott, E.M. (2000). Memory-search and rehearsal processes and the word length effect in immediate recall: A synthesis in reply to Service. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A(3), 666-670.

Brunner, R., & Cowan, N. (2000, Fall). The role of attention in the development of working memory. McNair Journal.

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., Nugent, L.D., & Elliott, E.M. (1999). The microanalysis of memory span and its development in childhood. International Journal of Psychology, 34, 353-358. (Special Quebec Memory Conference issue)

Cowan, N. (1999). An embedded-processes model of working memory. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 62-101). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Rinne, T., Gratton, G., Fabiani, M., Cowan, N., Maclin, E., Stinard, A., Sinkkonen, J., Alho, K., & Näätänen, R. (1999). Scalp-recorded optical signals make sound processing in the auditory cortex visible. Neuroimage, 10, 620-624.

Ritter, W., Sussman, E., Deacon, D., Cowan, N., & Vaughan, H.G. (1999). Two cognitive systems simultaneously prepared for opposite events. Psychophysiology, 36, 835-838.

Cowan, N. (1999). The differential maturation of two processing rates related to digit span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72, 193-209.

Hulme, C., Newton, P., Cowan, N., Stuart, G., & Brown, G. (1999). Think before you speak: pause, memory search and trace redintegration processes in verbal memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 447-463.

Mueser, P.R., Cowan, N., & Mueser, K.T. (1999). A generalized signal detection model to explain rational variation in base rate use. Cognition, 69, 267-312.

Cowan, N., Nugent, L.D., Elliott, E.M., Ponomarev, I., & Saults, J.S. (1999). The role of attention in the development of short-term memory: Age differences in the verbal span of apprehension. Child Development, 70, 1082-1097.

March, L., Cienfuegos, A., Goldbloom, L., Ritter, W., Cowan, N., & Javitt, D.C. (1999). Normal time course of auditory recognition in schizophrenia, despite impaired precision of the auditory sensory ("echoic") memory code. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 69-75.

Gomes, H., Sussman, E., Ritter, W., Kurtzberg, D., Cowan, N., & Vaughan Jr., H.G. (1999). Electrophysiological evidence of developmental changes in the duration of auditory sensory memory. Developmental Psychology, 35, 294-302.

Cowan, N. (1998). Evidence against the global speed of processing theory of working memory. In M.A. Gernsbacher & S.J. Derry (Eds.), Proceedings of the twentieth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society (p. 1211). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cowan, N. (1998). Children's memories according to fuzzy-trace theory: An endorsement of the theory's purpose and some suggestions to improve its application. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71, 144-154.

Cowan, N. (1998). What is more explanatory, processing capacity or processing speed? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 835-836. (Commentary on target article by Graham Halford)

Cowan, N. (1998). Five enigmas regarding LaBerge's (1997) triangular-circuit theory of attention and self-referential theory of awareness. Psyche, 4 (08). (Note: This is a web journal.)

Cowan, N. (1998). Visual and auditory working memory capacity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 77-78.

Ritter, W., Gomes, H., Cowan, N., Sussman, E., & Vaughan, H.G., Jr. (1998). Reactivation of a dormant representation of an auditory stimulus feature. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 605-614. [ abstract ]

Saults, J.S., & Cowan, N. (1998) . Developmental and individual differences in short-term memory. In N. Raz (Ed.), The other side of the error term: Aging and development as model systems in cognitive neuroscience (pp. 155-196). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Gillam, R., Cowan, N., & Marler, J. (1998). Information processing by school-age children with specific language impairment: Evidence from a modality effect paradigm. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 41, 913-926.

Cowan, N., Wood, N.L., Wood, P.K., Keller, T.A., Nugent, L.D., & Keller, C.V. (1998) . Two separate verbal processing rates contributing to short-term memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 141-160.

Elliott, E.M., Cowan, N., & Valle-Inclan, F. (1998). The nature of cross-modal, color-word interference effects. Perception & Psychophysics, 60, 761-767.

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., & Nugent, L.D. (1997). The role of absolute and relative amounts of time in forgetting within immediate memory: The case of tone pitch comparisons. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 393-397.

Cowan, N., & Wood, N.L. (1997). Constraints on awareness, attention, processing and memory: Some recent investigations with ignored speech. Consciousness and Cognition, 6, 182-203.

Wood, N.L., Stadler, M.A., & Cowan, N. (1997). Is there implicit memory without attention? A re-examination of task demands in Eich's (1984) procedure. Memory & Cognition, 25, 772-779.

Cowan, N., Wood, N.L., Nugent, L.D., & Treisman, M. (1997). There are two word length effects in verbal short-term memory: Opposed effects of duration and complexity. Psychological Science, 8, 290-295.

Javitt, D.C., Strous, R., Grochowski, S., Ritter, W., & Cowan, N. (1997). Impaired precision, but normal retention, of auditory sensory ("echoic") memory information in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 315-324.

Cowan, N. (1997). The development of working memory. In N. Cowan (Ed.), The development of memory in childhood. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.

Cowan, N., & Kail, R. (1996). Covert processes and their development in short-term memory. In S. Gathercole (Ed.), Models of short-term memory (pp. 29-50). Hove, U.K: Erlbaum Associates, Ltd.

Cowan, N. (1996). Can we resolve contradictions between process dissociation models? Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 255-259.

Cowan, N., & Stadler, M.A. (1996). Estimating unconscious processes: Implications of a general class of models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 125, 195-200.

Saults, J.S., & Cowan, N. (1996). The development of memory for ignored speech. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 63, 239-261. [ abstract ]

Cowan, N. (1996). Short-term memory, working memory, and their importance in language processing. Topics in language disorders, 17, 1-18. [Special issue: K.G. Butler & R.B. Gillam (Eds.), Working memory and language impairment: New perspectives.] To be reprinted in 1998 within Memory and language impairment in children and adults: New perspectives. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers.

Multhaup, K.S., Balota, D.A., & Cowan, N. (1996). Implications of aging, lexicality, and item length for the mechanisms underlying memory span. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 112-120.

Winkler, I., Cowan, N., Csépe, V., Czigler, I., & Näätänen, R. (1996). Interactions between transient and long-term auditory memory as reflected by the mismatch negativity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8, 403-415.

Javitt, D.C., Strous, R., Cowan, N., & Ritter, W. (1995). Behavioral evidence for auditory sensory ("echoic") memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, Oct;152(10):1517-9.

Wood, N., & Cowan, N. (1995). The cocktail party phenomenon revisited: Attention and memory in the classic selective listening procedure of Cherry (1953). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124, 243-262.

Cowan, N., & Greenspahn, E. (1995). Timed reactions to an object in apparent motion: Evidence on Cartesian and non-Cartesian perceptual hypotheses. Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 546-554. [ abstract ]

Cowan, N. (1995). Memory theories from A to Z. Contemporary Psychology, 40, 552-555. (Review of Theories of Memory, edited by A.F. Collins, S.E. Gathercole, M.A. Conway, & P.E. Morris)

Keller, T.A., Cowan, N., & Saults, J.S. (1995). Can auditory memory for tone pitch be rehearsed? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 635-645.

Gillam, R.B., Cowan, N., & Day, L.S. (1995). Sequential memory in children with and without language impairment. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 38, 393-402.

Cowan, N. (1995). Verbal working memory: A view with a room. American Journal of Psychology, 108, 123-155. (Review of Working memory and language by S. Gathercole & A. Baddeley)

Wood, N., & Cowan, N. (1995). The cocktail party phenomenon revisited: How frequent are attention shifts to one's name in an irrelevant auditory channel? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 255-260.

Cowan, N., & Saults, J.S. (1995). Memory for speech. In H. Winitz (Ed.), Human communication and its disorders: Vol. 4 (pp. 81 - 170). Timonium, MD: York Press.

Cowan, N. (1994). Sensory memory and its role in information processing. In G. Karmos, M. Molnár, V. Csépe, I. Czigler, & J.E. Desmedt (Eds.), Perspectives of event-related potential research (Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology Supplement 44)(pp. 21-31). New York: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Cowan, N. (1994).Mechanisms of verbal short-term memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 185-189.

Keller, T.A., & Cowan, N. (1994). Developmental increase in the duration of memory for tone pitch. Developmental Psychology, 30, 855-863.

Cowan, N., Keller, T., Hulme, C., Roodenrys, S., McDougall, S., & Rack, J. (1994). Verbal memory span in children: Speech timing clues to the mechanisms underlying age and word length effects. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 234-250.

Cowan, N., Wood, N.L., & Borne, D.N. (1994).Reconfirmation of the short-term storage concept. Psychological Science, 5, 103-106.

Braine, M.D.S., Brooks, P.J., Cowan, N., Samuels, M.C., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. (1993). The Development of categories at the semantics/syntax interface. Cognitive Development, 8, 465-494.

Cowan, N., Winkler, I., Teder, W., & Näätänen, R. (1993). Memory prerequisites of the mismatch negativity in the auditory event-related potential (ERP). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 909-921.

Massaro, D.W., & Cowan, N. (1993). Information processing models: Microscopes of the mind. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 383-425.

Cowan, N. (1993). Activation, attention, and short-term memory. Memory & Cognition, 21, 162-167. (Reprinted from Readings in Cognitive Psychology, by R.J. Sternberg & R.K. Wagner, Eds., 1999, Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers)

Cowan, N., & Leavitt, L.A. (1992). Speakers' access to the phonological structure of the syllable in word games. In M. Ziolkowski, M. Noske, & K. Deaton (Eds.), Papers from the 26th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society: Vol. 2. The Parasession On the Syllable in Phonetics and Phonology. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Cowan, N. (1992). Verbal memory span and the timing of spoken recall. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 668-684.

Cowan, N., Day, L., Saults, J.S., Keller, T.A., Johnson, T., & Flores, L. (1992). The role of verbal output time in the effects of word length on immediate memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 1-17.

Cowan, N. (1991). Neuropsychology and mental structure: Where do we go from here? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 14, 445-446. (Invited commentary on source article by T. Shallice.)

Cowan, N. (1991).Recurrent speech patterns as cues to the segmentation of multisyllabic sequences. Acta Psychologica, 77, 121-135. [ abstract ]

Cowan, N., Saults, J.S., Winterowd, C., & Sherk, M. (1991). Enhancement of 4-year-old children's memory span for phonologically similar and dissimilar word lists. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 51, 30-52. [ abstract ]

Balota, D.A., Cowan, N., & Engle, R.W. (1990). Suffix interference in the recall of linguistically coherent speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 16, 446-456.

Cowan, N. (1990). Converging evidence about information processing. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 13, 237-238. (Invited commentary on a source article by R. Naatanen)

Cowan, N., Lichty, W., & Grove, T.R. (1990). Properties of memory for unattended spoken syllables. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 16, 258-269.

Cowan, N. (1989). Speech perception by ear, eye, hand, and mind. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 12, 759-760. (Invited commentary on a source article by D. W. Massaro)

Cowan, N. (1989). Acquisition of Pig Latin: A Case Study. Journal of Child Language, 16, 365-386.

Cowan, N. (1989). The reality of cross-modal Stroop effects. Perception & Psychophysics, 45, 87-88.

Cowan, N. (1989).A reply to Miles, Madden, and Jones: Mistakes and other flaws in the challenge to the cross-modal Stroop effect. Perception & Psychophysics, 45, 82-84.

Cowan, N. (1988). Evolving conceptions of memory storage, selective attention, and their mutual constraints within the human information processing system. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 163-191.

Cowan, N., Lichty, W., & Grove, T. (1988). Memory for unattended speech during silent reading. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, & R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues: Vol. 2. NY: Wiley & Sons.

Cowan, N., Cartwright, C., Winterowd, C., & Sherk, M. (1987). An adult model of preschool children's speech memory. Memory and Cognition, 15, 511-517.

Cowan, N., & Barron, A. (1987). Cross-modal, auditory-visual Stroop interference and possible implications for speech memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 41, 393-401.

Cowan, N., & Leavitt, L. A. (1987). The developmental course of two children who could talk backward five years ago. Journal of Child Language, 14, 393-395.

Cowan, N. (1987). Auditory sensory storage in relation to the growth of sensation and acoustic information extraction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 204-215. [ abstract ]

Cowan, N. (1987). Auditory memory: Procedures to examine two phases. In W. A. Yost & C. S. Watson (Eds.), Auditory processing of complex sounds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cowan, N. (1986). A matrix of consonant-cluster-free monosyllabic words in English. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 18, 434-446.

Cowan, N., & Kielbasa, L. (1986). Temporal properties of memory for speech in preschool children. Memory & Cognition, 14, 382-390.

Cowan, N., & Morse, P. A. (1986). The use of auditory and phonetic memory in vowel discrimination. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 79, 500-507.

Cowan, N., Braine, M. D. S., & Leavitt, L. A. (1986). Identifying phonemes and syllables: Evidence from people who rapidly reorder speech. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics, 9, 1-39.

Cowan, N., Braine, M. D. S., & Leavitt, L. A. (1985). The phonological and metaphonological representation of speech: Evidence from fluent backward talkers. Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 679-698.

Cowan, N. (1984). On short and long auditory stores. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 341-370.

Cowan, N., & Davidson, G. (1984). Salient childhood memories. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 145, 101-107.

Goodsitt, J., Morse, P., Ver Hoeve, J., & Cowan, N. (1984). Infant speech recognition in multisyllabic contexts. Child Development, 55, 903-910.

Cowan, N., & Leavitt, L. A. (1983). Talking backward: Speech play in late childhood. In C. L. Thew & E. L. Johnson (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Congress for the Study of Child Language: Vol. 2. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Cowan, N., Suomi, K., & Morse, P. A. (1982). Echoic storage in infant perception. Child Development, 53, 984-990.

Petrovich-Bartell, N., Cowan, N., & Morse, P. A. (1982). Mothers' perceptions of infant distress vocalizations. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 25, 371-376. [ abstract ]

Cowan, N., Leavitt, L. A., Massaro, D. W., & Kent, R. D. (1982). A fluent backward talker. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 25, 48-53.

Cowan, N., & Leavitt, L. A. (1982). Talking backward: Exceptional speech play in late childhood. Journal of Child Language, 9, 481-495.

Petrovich-Bartell, N., Cowan, N., & Morse, P. A. (1982). Perceptual and acoustic attributes of infant distress vocalizations. In C. L. Thew & E. L. Johnson (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Congress for the Study of Child Language: Vol. 1. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Morse, P. A., & Cowan, N. (1982). Infant auditory and speech perception. In T. M. Field, A. Huston, H. C. Quay, L. Troll, & G. E. Finley (Eds.), Review of human development. New York: Wiley & Sons.

Cowan, N., & Leavitt, L. A. (1981). Juggling acts with linguistic units. In M. F. Miller, C. S. Masek, & R. A. Hendrick (Eds.), Proceedings from the parasession on language and behavior. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.

Cowan, N., & Morse, P. A. (1979). Influence of task demands on the categorical versus continuous perception of vowels. In J. J. Wolf & D. H. Klatt (Eds.), Speech communication papers presented at the 97th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America. New York: ASA.

Richardson, J. S., Cowan, N., Hartman, R., & Jacobowitz, D. M. (1974). On the behavioral and neurochemical actions of 6-hydroxydopa and 5, 6- dihydroxytryptamine in rats. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, 8, 29-44.


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