Summary of Reflective Judgment Levels. 1


Individual levels of the Reflective Judgment model are discussed in greater detail in the King & Kitchener (1994) 2 and Wood (1997) 3

Although the Reflective Judgment model is composed of seven distinct levels, it has often been useful to describe the general sophistication of individuals using the terms "Pre-Reflective," "Quasi-Reflective," and "Reflective." What follows below is a general description of the reasoning generally seen in these categories, as well as some comments regarding the epistemology and principles of justification for beliefs employed. Within each of these general categories, a table outlining the specific view of knowledge, concepts of justification and typical statement for each individual Reflective Judgment Level follows.

I. Pre-Reflective Thinking (Levels 1, 2, and 3)

II. Quasi-Reflective Thinking (Levels 4 and 5)

III. Reflective Thinking (Levels 6-7)

1. Adapted from Handout entitled "Stage-Related Assumptions about Knowing" by Patricia King & Karen Kitchener

2. King, P. M. & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). The development of Reflective Judgment in adolescence and adulthood . Jossey Bass: San Francisco.

3. Wood, P. K. (1997). A secondary analysis of claims regarding the Reflective Judgment interview: Internal consistency, sequentiality and intra-individual differences in ill-structured problem solving. Higher Education: Handbook of theory and research. (pp. 245-314) Edison, N.J.: Agathon.