Hanuman Langur

Species: Presbytis entellus.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Male Ht. 3.2 ft., Wt. 50 lbs. Female Ht. 2 ft., Wt. 30 lbs. Coat: gray, with underparts whitish; black faces, ears, hands and feet. Large canines, esp. males. Quadrupedal. Longevity: about 15 years in wild.

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION: S. Himalayas from Afghanistan border to Tibet; Bangladesh; Sri Lanka.

ECOLOGY: Terrestrial foragers. Forest, scrub, cultivated fields, villages and towns. Home range: variable; Day range: .5 km. Population density: variable, approx. 20-100 / km2

DIET: Leaves, grain, seeds, fruit, insects.

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION: OMU's, with one adult male and 2-10 females + offspring. Rarely multimale. Females form life-long coalitions with close maternal relatives (sisters, mothers, ...). Bachelor males commonly form all-male groups. Male takeovers involve infanticide by the new male, evidently because it increases his reproductive rate by bringing the female back into sexual receptivity much faster than waiting for her to complete nursing the infant. Male transfer; female kin groups. Frequent play among juveniles.

REPRODUCTION: Males sexually mature at 5 yrs. Females sexually mature at 4 yrs. Gestation length: 6 months. Moderate estrus swellings. "Sham" estrus after male takeovers. Litter size: 1. Interbirth interval: 2 yrs. Infant birth wt.: 2.5 lbs.

PARENTAL CARE: Infants carried by females for 8 mo. Weaning at 1-1.5 yr.

TOPIC OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Infanticide.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES:

Hrdy, S. 1981. The langurs of Mt. Abu. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

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