Titi Monkey Callicebus spp.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION:

Due to a relative lack of sexual dimorphism, the sizes of males and females are nearly equivalent. HEIGHT- 40-45cm plus 20 cm nonprehensile tail

WEIGHT- 1-2 pounds.

COAT-thick fur, long, fine wavy hairs that range in color from reddish-gray to dark brown to black

BRAIN SIZE- cerebral index of 20-30mm"

LOCOMOTION- Quadrupedal walking, leaping, as well as vertical cling while

feeding

LONGEVITY- average 13 years, but males tend to live 10-20% longer than females

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION: Neotropical locations ranging from the Amazon River

drainage to the headwaters of the Orinoco River and Upper Paraguay River Basin

ECOLOGY:

HABITAT- damp, low rainforest canopy near rivers

HOME RANGE- 500-1000m

POPULATION DENSITY- 13.260 - 16.750per km"

DIET: mainly fruigivores with fruit constituting nearly 75% of their diet. The remaining 25% of their diet includes spiders, insects, small birds, and bird eggs.

TECHNIQUES USED TO GET FOOD- use grasping hands to get food and often use vertical cling while feeding. In captivity, they have been observed using straws to capture cockroaches.

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION:

MEAN GROUP SIZE- 3.3

COMPOSITION- Adult male, female, and offspring from several breeding seasons.

MATING SYSTEM- monogamous

MALE/FEMALE DOMINANCE HIERARCHIES- do not seem to exist

KINSHIP- bonding between male/female partners as well as their families are very important. This can be seen through their dueting and tail intertwining.

TERRITORIALITY-highly territorial

FORAGING PARTIES- family groups or pairs with the adult male as the leader

AGGRESSION- territorial confrontations involve displays, vocalizations, and

chasings, but physical fighting is rare and never severe

INTELLIGENCE:

The Titi Monkey uses a wide range of sounds to communicate. These are used both in communicating with other monkeys that enter their territory as well as in "singing" duets with their partners or offspring.In captivity, they have been observed using tools such as plastic straws in order to capture food.

REPRODUCTION:

BIRTH SEASONALITY- December through April

MALE/FEMALE AGE OF SEXUAL MATURITY- 3-5 years, but reach full adult weight at ten months of age

GESTATION- 24-26 weeks

ESTRUS SWELLINGS- copulation is not preceded by a display, but there is an increased inspection of the female's genitalia

LITTER SIZE- 1

INTERBIRTH INTERVAL - 1 year

%INFANT MORTALITY- N/A

PARENTAL CARE:

INFANTS CARRIED - Infants are carried by the male rather than the female other than at times of nursing. This occurs for 4 to 5 months.

BEGIN TO WALK AT ABOUT - 1 MONTH

WEANING AT - 5 months

OFFSPRING STAY WITH FAMILY UNTIL THEY ARE 2-3 YEARS OLD

INFANTICIDE - has never been observed

TOPICS OF SPECIAL INTEREST:

The Titi monkey is very vocal. It uses a wide variety of sounds to communicate with others. An important way of bonding with their family includes "singing" duets with eachother. This occurs between the adult male and female as well as between the adult male and his daughter or the adult female and her son. Other way that the Titi monkey bonds with its family is through grooming and also by sleeping huddled together and intertwining their tails.

Anther interesting fact about the Titi Monkey is that the male is the predominant caretaker of the offspring. He is the one responsible for carrying infants around and tending to them. The female provides little to her young other than milk. Studies show that males tend to outlive females by 10-20% because of their role in parenting.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC SOURCES:

Cook ed. Comparative Ecology and Behavior in Primates. London: Academic Press, 1973.

Hershkovitz, Phillip. Titis, New World Monkeys of the Genus Callicebus. Chicago: Field Museum Publishing, 1990.

Grzimek, Bernhard. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972.

Whitfield, Phillip. Macmillan Illustrated Animal Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1984.

Zimmerman, Newman, Jurgens eds. Current Topics in Primate Vocal Communication. New York: Plenum Press, 1995.

WEB SITES:

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/callicebus/c._moloch$narrative.html

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~phyl/anthro/platy.html

eteweb.lscf.ucsb.edu/pub_datasets/Damuth.Nature.93.html

http://www.nando.net/newsroom/ntnlhealth/060898/health14_12487_noframes.html

http://www.sonoma.edu/people/bobe/quiz1notes.html

http://members.tripod.com/uakari/primata.html

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