Geary, D. C. (2013). Early foundations for mathematics learning and their relations to learning disabilities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 2327.
Geary, D.C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Bailey, H. D. (2013). Adolescents’ functional numeracy is predicted by their school entry number system knowledge. PLoS ONE, 8(1): e54651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054651
Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2013). Sex differences in mathematics and reading achievement are inversely related: Within and acrossnation assessment of 10 years of PISA data. PLoS ONE, 8(3): e57988. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057988
Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Schatschneider, C., Hamlett, C. L., DeSelms, J., Seethaler, P. M., Wilson, J., Craddock , C. F., Bryant, J. D., Luther, K., & Changas, P. (2013). Understanding and promoting atrisk learners’ mathematics development in first grade: A randomized control trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 5877.
Geary, D. C. (2013). Learning disabilities in mathematics: Recent advances. In H. L. Swanson, K. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (second edition) (pp. 239255). New York: Guilford Press.
Chu, F., vanMarle, K., & Geary, D. C. (2013). Quantitative deficits of preschool children at risk for mathematical learning disability. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, 4,195. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00195
Li, Y., & Geary, D. C. (2013). Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement. PLoS ONE 8(7): e70160. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070160.
vanMarle, K., Chu, K., Li, Y., & Geary, D. C. (in press). Acuity of the approximate number system and preschoolers’ quantitative development. Developmental Science.
Rouder, J. N., & Geary, D. C. (in press). Children’s cognitive representation of the mathematical number line. Developmental Science.
Bailey, D. H., Siegler, R.S, & Geary, D. C. (in press). First grade predictors of middle school fraction knowledge. Developmental Science.
Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., &. Hamlett, C. L. (in press). Sources of individual differences in emerging competence with numeration understanding versus multidigit calculation skill. Journal of Educational Psychology.
Vukovic, R. K., Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Jordan, N. C., Siegler, R. S., & Gersten, R. (in press). Sources of individual differences in children’s conceptual understanding of fractions. Child Development.
Geary, D. C. (in press). The classification and cognitive characteristics of mathematical disabilities in children. In R. C. Kadosh & A. Dowker (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Geary, D. C. (in press). Preschool children’s quantitative knowledge and longterm risk for functional innumeracy. For S. Chinn (Ed.), International Handbook of Mathematical Disabilities. Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
RosenbergLee, M., Ashkenazi, S., Chen, T., Young, C. B., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. Brain hyperconnectivity and operationspecific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia. (second revision submitted, Developmental Science).
Qin, S., Cho, S., Chen, T., RosenbergLee, M., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. Hippocampalneocortical functional reorganization underlies cognitive development (submitted).
Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Bailey, D. H. (2012). Mathematical cognition deficits in children with learning disabilities and persistent low achievement: A five year prospective study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 206–223.
Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Bailey, D. H. (2012). Fact retrieval deficits in low achieving children and children with mathematical learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 291307.
Cho, S., Metcalfe, A. W. S., Young, C. B., Ryali, S. Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. (2012). Hippocampalprefrontal engagement and dynamic causal interactions in the maturation of children’s fact retrieval. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 1849–1866.
Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2012). Can stereotype threat explain the sex gap in mathematics performance and achievement? Review of General Psychology, 16, 93102.
Geary, D.C., Hoard, M. K., & Nugent, L. (2012). Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and inclass attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 49–65.
Bailey, D. H., Littlefield, A., & Geary, D. C. (2012). The codevelopment of skill at and preference for use of retrievalbased processes for solving addition problems: Individual and sex differences from first to sixth grade. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 7892.
Bailey, D. H., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Geary, D.C. (2012). Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 447455.
Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2012). Why are there fewer women working in science and technology? The Skeptic, 24, 2830.
Geary, D. C. (2011). Cognitive predictors of individual differences in achievement growth in mathematics: A five year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 47, 15391552.
Cho, S., Ryali, S., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. (2011). How do you solve 7+8?: Decoding children's brain activity patterns during counting versus retrieval. Developmental Science, 14, 9891001.
Geary, D. C. (2011). Consequences, characteristics, and causes of poor mathematics achievement and mathematical learning disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32, 250263.
Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Bailey, D. H. (2011). How SLD manifests in mathematics. In Flanagan, D. P., & Alfonso, V. C. (Eds.), Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification (pp. 4364). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Geary, D. C., Berch, D. B., Boykin, A. W., Embretson, S., Reyna, V., & Siegler, R. S. (2011). Learning mathematics: Findings from the national (United States) mathematics advisory panel. In N. Canto (Ed.), Issues and proposals in mathematics education (pp. 175221). Lisbon, Portugal: Gulbenkian.
Geary, D. C. (2010). Missouri longitudinal study of mathematical development and disability.
British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II, 7, 3149. In R. Cowan, M. Saxton, & A. Tolmie (Eds.), Understanding number development and number difficulties (No. 7, British Journal of Educational Psychology, Monograph Series II: Psychological Aspects of Education  Current Trends). Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society.
Geary, D. C. (2010). Mathematical learning disabilities. In J. Holmes (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Vol. 38, pp. 4577). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Meyer, M. L., Salimpoor, V. N., Wu, S. S., Geary, D. C., & Menon V. (2010) Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematical skills in 2nd and 3rd graders. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 101109.
Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2010). The contributions of numerosity and domaingeneral abilities for school readiness. Child Development, 81, 15201533.
Fuchs, L., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Seethaler, P. M., Bryant, J. D., & Schatschneider, C. (2010). Do different types of school mathematics development depend on different constellations of numerical versus general cognitive abilities? Developmental Psychology, 46, 17311746.
Eriksson, K., Bailey, D. H., & Geary, D. C. (2010). The grammar of approximating number pairs. Memory & Cognition, 38, 333343.
Geary, D. C. (2010). Mathematical disabilities: Reflections on cognitive, neuropsychological, and genetic components. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 130133.
Geary, D. C., Bailey, D. H., Littlefield, A., Wood, P., Hoard, M. K., & Nugent, L. (2009). Firstgrade predictors of mathematical learning disability: A latent class trajectory analysis. Cognitive Development, 34, 411429.
Geary, D. C. (2009). An evolutionary twist on sex, mathematics, and the sciences. In C. Hoff Sommers (Ed.), The science of women in science (pp. 170189). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute Press.
Geary, D. C., Bailey, D. H., & Hoard, M. K. (2009). Predicting mathematical achievement and mathematical learning disability with a simple screening tool: The Number Sets Test. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27, 265279.
Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & ByrdCraven, J. (2008). Development of number line representations in children with mathematical learning disability. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 277299.
Wu, S., S., Meyer, M. L., Maeda, U., Salimpoor, V., Tomiyama, S., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. (2008). Standardized assessment of strategy use and working memory in early mental arithmetic performance. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 365393.
Hoard, M. K., Geary, D. C., ByrdCraven, J., & Nugent, L. (2008). Mathematical cognition in intellectually precocious children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 251276.
Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., ByrdCraven, J., Nugent, L., & Numtee, C. (2007). Cognitive mechanisms underlying achievement deficits in children with mathematical learning disability. Child Development, 78, 13431359.
Geary, D. C. (2007). Educating the evolved mind: Conceptual foundations for an evolutionary educational psychology. In J. S. Carlson & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Educating the evolved mind (pp. 199, Vol. 2, Psychological perspectives on contemporary educational issues). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
Geary, D. C. (2007). Educating the Evolved Mind: Reflections and Refinements. In J. S.
Carlson & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Educating the evolved mind (pp. 177203, Vol. 2, Psychological perspectives on contemporary educational issues). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
Geary, D. C. (2007). An evolutionary perspective on learning disability in mathematics.
Developmental Neuropsychology, 32, 471519.
Geary, D. C. (2007). An evolutionary perspective on sex differences in mathematics and the sciences. In S. J. Ceci & W. Williams (Eds.), Why aren’t more women in science? Top researchers debate the evidence (pp. 173188). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Halpern, D., Benbow, C., Geary, D. C., Gur, R., Hyde, J., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2007). The science of sex differences in science and mathematics. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 8 (No 1, 152).
Halpern, D., Benbow, C., Geary, D. C., Gur, R., Hyde, J., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2007). Sex, Math and Scientific Achievement: Why do men dominate the fields of science, engineering and mathematics? Scientific American Mind, 18, 4451.
Geary, D. C., Nugent, L., Hoard, M. K., & ByrdCraven, J. (2007). Strategy use, longterm memory, and working memory capacity. In D. B. Berch & M. M. M. Mazzocco (Eds.), Why is Math So Hard for Some Children? The Nature and Origins of Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Disabilities (pp. 83105). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
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B., Brookes, H., Neave, N., Manning, J. T., & Geary, D. C.
(2006). Second to fourth digit ratio and numerical competence in
children. Brain and Cognition, 61, 211218.
Geary, D. C. (2006). Dyscalculia at an Early Age: Characteristics
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mathematics: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. In J. I. D. Campbell
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Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & ByrdCraven, J. (2004). Strategy
choices in simple and complex addition: Contributions of working
memory and counting knowledge for children with mathematical disability.
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Geary, D. C. (2003). Learning disabilities in arithmetic: Problem
solving differences and cognitive deficits. In H. L. Swanson, K.
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of Learning Disabilities, 37, 415.
Geary, D. C. (2003). Arithmetical development: Commentary and future
directions. In A. Baroody & A. Dowker (Eds.), The development
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Geary,
D. C. (2002). Principles of evolutionary educational psychology.
Learning and Individual Differences, 12, 317345.
Geary,
D. C., & Hoard, M. K. (2002). Learning disabilities in basic
mathematics: Deficits in memory and cognition. In J. M. Royer (Ed.),
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Geary, D. C. (2001). Darwinism, schooling, and mathematics: How
an understanding of evolution can inform instructional practices.
In T. Loveless (Ed.), Curriculum wars: Alternative approaches
to reading and mathematics (pp. 85107). Cambridge, MA: Harvard
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Geary,
D. C., & Hoard, M. K. (2001). Numerical
and arithmetical deficits in learningdisabled children: Relation
to dyscalculia and dyslexia. Aphasiology, 15, 635647.
Geary, D. C., Saults, S. J., Liu, F., & Hoard, M. K. (2000).
Sex differences in spatial cognition, computational
fluency, and arithmetical reasoning. Journal of Experimental
Child Psychology, 77, 337353.
Geary, D. C. (2000). From infancy to adulthood: The development
of numerical abilities. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
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Geary,
D. C., Hamson, C. O., & Hoard, M. K. (2000). Numerical
and arithmetical cognition: A longitudinal study of process and
concept deficits in children with learning disability. Journal
of Experimental Child Psychology, 77, 236263.
Geary, D. C. (2000). Mathematical disorders: An overview for educators.
Perspectives, 26, 69.
Geary, D. C., Liu, F., Chen, G.P., Saults, S. J., & Hoard,
M. K. (1999). Contributions of computational fluency
to crossnational differences in arithmetical reasoning abilities.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 716719.
Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Hamson, C. O. (1999). Numerical
and arithmetical cognition: Patterns of functions and deficits in
children at risk for a mathematical disability. Journal
of Experimental Child Psychology, 74, 213239.
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M. K., Geary, D. C., & Hamson, C. O. (1999). Numerical and arithmetical
cognition: Performance of low and averageIQ child. Mathematical
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abilities: Commentary on the mathfact retrieval hypothesis.
Contemporary Educational Psychology 24, 267274.
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framework for California public schools: Kindergarten through grade
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D. C., & Lin, J. (1998). Numerical cognition: Agerelated differences
in the speed of executing biologicallyprimary and biologicallysecondary
processes. Experimental Aging Research, 24, 101 137.
Geary, D. C., Hamson, C. O., Chen, G. P., Liu, F., & Hoard,
M. K. (1998). A biocultural model of academic development. In S.
G. Paris & H. M. Wellman (Eds.), Global prospects for education:
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Geary, D. C., Hamson, C. O., Chen, G. P., Liu, F., Hoard, M. K.,
& Salthouse, T. A. (1997). Computational and reasoning abilities
in arithmetic: Crossgenerational change in China and the United
States. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 425430.
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and sex differences in mathematical abilities. Behavioral
and Brain Sciences, 19, 229284.
Geary, D. C. (1996). International differences in mathematical achievement:
Their nature, causes, and consequences. Current Directions in
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Reprinted in Meehan, A. M. & AstorStetson (Eds.)(1998). Annual
editions: Adolescent Psychology (pp. 7175). Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGrawHill.
Geary, D. C., BowThomas, C. C., Liu, F., & Siegler, R. S. (1996).
Development of arithmetical competencies in Chinese and American
children: Influence of age, language, and schooling. Child Development,
67, 2022 2044.
Geary, D. C., Salthouse, T. A., Chen, G. P., & Fan, L. (1996).
Are East Asian versus American differences in arithmetical ability
a recent phenomenon? Developmental Psychology, 32, 254262.
Geary, D. C. (1996). The problem size effect in mental addition:
Developmental and crossnational trends. Mathematical Cognition,
2, 63 93.
Geary, D. C. (1996). Biology, culture, and crossnational differences
in arithmetical ability. In R. J. Sternberg & T. BenZeev (Eds.),
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Geary, D. C. (1995). Reflections of evolution
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development and instruction. American Psychologist,
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Geary, D. C. (1994). Children's
mathematical development: Research and practical applications.
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Geary, D. C., & Siegler, R. S. (1994). Mathematical development
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Fan, L., Geary, D. C., BowThomas, C. C., & Siegler, R. S.
(1994). Influences of numerical memory span on strategy choices
in addition: A comparative study of numerical skill differences
in Chinese and American children. [Chinese journal, Psychological
Science, 17, 2127].
Geary, D. C. (1993). Mathematical disabilities: Cognitive, neuropsychological,
and genetic components. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 345362.
Geary, D. C., Frensch, P. A., & Wiley, J. G. (1993). Simple
and complex mental subtraction: Strategy choice and speedofprocessing
differences in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging,
8, 242256.
Geary, D. C., Fan, L., BowThomas, C. C., & Siegler, R. S.
(1993). Even before formal instruction, Chinese children outperform
American children in mental addition. Cognitive Development,
8, 517529.
Frensch, P. A., & Geary, D. C. (1993). The effects of practice
on component processes in complex mental addition. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition,
19, 433456.
Geary, D. C., Cormier, P., Goggin, J. P., Estrada, P., & Lunn,
M. C. E. (1993). Mental arithmetic: A componential analysis of speedofprocessing
across monolingual, weak bilingual, and strong bilingual adults.
International Journal of Psychology, 28, 185201.
Geary, D. C., Fan, L., & BowThomas, C. C. (1992). Numerical
cognition: Loci of ability differences comparing children from China
and the United States. Psychological Science, 3, 180185.
Geary,
D. C., BowThomas, C. C., & Yao, Y. (1992). Counting
knowledge and skill in cognitive addition: A comparison of normal
and mathematically disabled children. Journal of Experimental
Child Psychology, 54, 372391.
Geary, D. C., & Widaman, K. F. (1992). Numerical cognition:
On the convergence of componential and psychometric models. Intelligence,
16, 4780.
Widaman, K. F., Little, T. D., Geary, D. C., & Cormier, P. (1992).
Individual differences in the development of skill in mental addition:
Internal and external validation of chronometric models. Learning
and Individual Differences, 4, 167213.
Geary, D. C., Brown, S. C, & Samaranayake, V. A. (1991). Cognitive
addition: A short longitudinal study of strategy choice and speedofprocessing
differences in normal and mathematically disabled children. Developmental
Psychology, 27, 787797.
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choice and speedofprocessing differences in young and elderly
adults. Psychology and Aging, 6, 474483.
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choice and speedofprocessing differences in gifted, normal, and
mathematically disabled children. Developmental Psychology,
27, 398406.
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D. C. (1990). A componential analysis of an early learning deficit
in mathematics. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,
49, 363383.
Reprinted in Messer, D., & Dockrell, J. (Eds.) (1998). Developmental
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Geary,
D. C., & BurlinghamDubree, M. (1989). External validation
of the strategy choice model for addition. Journal of Experimental
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Widaman, K. F., Geary, D. C., Cormier, P., & Little, T. D. (1989).
A componential model for mental addition. Journal of Experimental
Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 898919.
Geary, D. C., & Widaman, K. F. (1987). Individual differences
in cognitive arithmetic. Journal of Experimental Psychology:
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D. C., Widaman, K. F., Little, T. D., & Cormier, P.
(1987). Cognitive addition: Comparison of learning disabled and
academically normal elementary school children. Cognitive
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Geary, D. C. (1987). Cognitive addition: On the convergence of
statistical and conceptual models. Bulletin of the Psychonomic
Society, 25, 427430.
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addition and multiplication: Evidence for a single memory network.
Memory & Cognition, 14, 478487.
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(1985). Cognitive processing strategies for complex addition. Proceedings
of the Cognitive Science Society, 7, 385389.
last updated:
December 3, 2013
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