David C. Geary home page Department of Psychological Sciences home page
University of Missouri-Columbia home page
publications: mathematical cognition and development

Geary, D. C. (2013). Early foundations for mathematics learning and their relations to learning disabilities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 23-27.

Geary, D.C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Bailey, H. D. (2013). Adolescents’ functional numeracy is predicted  by their school entry number system knowledge. PLoS ONE, 8(1): e54651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054651

Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2013). Sex differences in mathematics and reading achievement are inversely related: Within- and across-nation assessment of 10 years of PISA data.  PLoS ONE, 8(3): e57988. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057988

Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Schatschneider, C., Hamlett, C. L., DeSelms, J., Seethaler, P. M., Wilson, J., Craddock , C. F., Bryant, J. D., Luther, K., & Changas, P.  (2013). Understanding and promoting at-risk learners’ mathematics development in first grade: A randomized control trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 58-77.

Geary, D. C. (2013). Learning disabilities in mathematics: Recent advances. In H. L. Swanson, K. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (second edition) (pp. 239-255). New York: Guilford Press. 

Chu, F., vanMarle, K.,  & Geary, D. C. (2013). Quantitative deficits of preschool children at risk for mathematical learning disability. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, 4,195. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00195

Li, Y., & Geary, D. C. (2013). Developmental gains in visuospatial memory predict gains in mathematics achievement. PLoS ONE 8(7): e70160. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070160.

vanMarle, K., Chu, K., Li, Y., & Geary, D. C. (in press). Acuity of the approximate number system and preschoolers’ quantitative development. Developmental Science.

Rouder, J. N., & Geary, D. C. (in press). Children’s cognitive representation of the mathematical number line. Developmental Science.

Bailey, D. H., Siegler, R.S, & Geary, D. C. (in press). First grade predictors of middle school fraction knowledge. Developmental Science.

Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., &. Hamlett, C. L. (in press). Sources of individual differences in emerging competence with numeration understanding versus multidigit calculation skill. Journal of Educational Psychology.

Vukovic, R. K., Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Jordan, N. C., Siegler, R. S., & Gersten, R. (in press). Sources of individual differences in children’s conceptual understanding of fractions. Child Development.

Geary, D. C. (in press). The classification and cognitive characteristics of mathematical disabilities in children. In R. C. Kadosh & A. Dowker (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Geary, D. C. (in press). Preschool children’s quantitative knowledge and long-term risk for functional innumeracy. For S. Chinn (Ed.), International Handbook of Mathematical Disabilities. Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Rosenberg-Lee, M., Ashkenazi, S., Chen, T., Young, C. B., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia. (second revision submitted, Developmental Science).

Qin, S., Cho, S., Chen, T., Rosenberg-Lee, M., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies cognitive development (submitted).

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Bailey, D. H. (2012). Mathematical cognition deficits in children with learning disabilities and persistent low achievement: A five year prospective study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 206–223.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Bailey, D. H. (2012). Fact retrieval deficits in low achieving children and children with mathematical learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 291-307.

Cho, S., Metcalfe, A. W. S., Young, C. B., Ryali, S. Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. (2012). Hippocampal-prefrontal engagement and dynamic causal interactions in the maturation of children’s fact retrieval. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 1849–1866.

Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2012). Can stereotype threat explain the sex gap in mathematics performance and achievement?  Review of General Psychology, 16, 93-102.

Geary, D.C., Hoard, M. K., & Nugent, L. (2012). Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 49–65.

Bailey, D. H., Littlefield, A., & Geary, D. C. (2012). The co-development of skill at and preference for use of retrieval-based processes for solving addition problems: Individual and sex differences from first to sixth grade. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 78-92.

Bailey, D. H., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Geary, D.C. (2012). Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 447-455.

Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2012). Why are there fewer women working in science and technology? The Skeptic, 24, 28-30.

Geary, D. C. (2011). Cognitive predictors of individual differences in achievement growth in mathematics: A five year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1539-1552.

Cho, S., Ryali, S., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. (2011). How do you solve 7+8?: Decoding children's brain activity patterns during counting versus retrieval. Developmental Science, 14, 989-1001.

Geary, D. C. (2011). Consequences, characteristics, and causes of poor mathematics achievement and mathematical learning disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32, 250-263.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Bailey, D. H. (2011). How SLD manifests in mathematics. In Flanagan, D. P., & Alfonso, V. C. (Eds.), Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification (pp. 43-64). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Geary, D. C., Berch, D. B., Boykin, A. W., Embretson, S., Reyna, V., & Siegler, R. S. (2011). Learning mathematics: Findings from the national (United States) mathematics advisory panel. In N. Canto (Ed.), Issues and proposals in mathematics education (pp. 175-221). Lisbon, Portugal: Gulbenkian.

Geary, D. C. (2010). Missouri longitudinal study of mathematical development and disability. British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II, 7, 31-49. In R. Cowan, M. Saxton, & A. Tolmie (Eds.), Understanding number development and number difficulties (No. 7, British Journal of Educational Psychology, Monograph Series II: Psychological Aspects of Education - Current Trends). Leicester, UK: British Psychological Society.

Geary, D. C. (2010). Mathematical learning disabilities. In J. Holmes (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Vol. 38, pp. 45-77). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Meyer, M. L., Salimpoor, V. N., Wu, S. S., Geary, D. C., & Menon V. (2010) Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematical skills in 2nd and 3rd graders. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 101-109.

Fuchs, L. S., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., & Hamlett, C. L. (2010). The contributions of numerosity and domain-general abilities for school readiness. Child Development, 81, 1520-1533.

Fuchs, L., Geary, D. C., Compton, D. L., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Seethaler, P. M., Bryant, J. D., & Schatschneider, C. (2010). Do different types of school mathematics development depend on different constellations of numerical versus general cognitive abilities? Developmental Psychology, 46, 1731-1746.

Eriksson, K., Bailey, D. H., & Geary, D. C. (2010). The grammar of approximating number pairs. Memory & Cognition, 38, 333-343.

Geary, D. C. (2010). Mathematical disabilities: Reflections on cognitive, neuropsychological, and genetic components. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 130-133.

Geary, D. C., Bailey, D. H., Littlefield, A., Wood, P., Hoard, M. K., & Nugent, L. (2009). First-grade predictors of mathematical learning disability: A latent class trajectory analysis. Cognitive Development, 34, 411-429.

Geary, D. C. (2009). An evolutionary twist on sex, mathematics, and the sciences. In C. Hoff Sommers (Ed.), The science of women in science (pp. 170-189). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute Press.

Geary, D. C., Bailey, D. H., & Hoard, M. K. (2009). Predicting mathematical achievement and mathematical learning disability with a simple screening tool: The Number Sets Test. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27, 265-279.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Byrd-Craven, J. (2008). Development of number line representations in children with mathematical learning disability. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 277-299.

Wu, S., S., Meyer, M. L., Maeda, U., Salimpoor, V., Tomiyama, S., Geary, D. C., & Menon, V. (2008). Standardized assessment of strategy use and working memory in early mental arithmetic performance. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 365-393.

Hoard, M. K., Geary, D. C., Byrd-Craven, J., & Nugent, L. (2008). Mathematical cognition in intellectually precocious children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 251-276.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Byrd-Craven, J., Nugent, L., & Numtee, C. (2007). Cognitive mechanisms underlying achievement deficits in children with mathematical learning disability. Child Development, 78, 1343-1359.

Geary, D. C. (2007). Educating the evolved mind: Conceptual foundations for an evolutionary educational psychology. In J. S. Carlson & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Educating the evolved mind (pp. 1-99, Vol. 2, Psychological perspectives on contemporary educational issues).  Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Geary, D. C. (2007). Educating the Evolved Mind: Reflections and Refinements. In J. S. Carlson & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Educating the evolved mind (pp. 177-203, Vol. 2, Psychological perspectives on contemporary educational issues). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Geary, D. C. (2007). An evolutionary perspective on learning disability in mathematics.
Developmental Neuropsychology, 32, 471-519. Geary, D. C. (2007). An evolutionary perspective on sex differences in mathematics and the sciences. In S. J. Ceci & W. Williams (Eds.), Why aren’t more women in science? Top researchers debate the evidence (pp. 173-188). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Halpern, D., Benbow, C., Geary, D. C., Gur, R., Hyde, J., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2007). The science of sex differences in science and mathematics. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 8 (No 1, 1-52).

Halpern, D., Benbow, C., Geary, D. C., Gur, R., Hyde, J., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2007). Sex, Math and Scientific Achievement: Why do men dominate the fields of science, engineering and mathematics? Scientific American Mind, 18, 44-51.

Geary, D. C., Nugent, L., Hoard, M. K., & Byrd-Craven, J. (2007). Strategy use, long-term memory, and working memory capacity. In D. B. Berch & M. M. M. Mazzocco (Eds.), Why is Math So Hard for Some Children? The Nature and Origins of Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Disabilities (pp. 83-105). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Geary, D. C. (2006). Development of mathematical understanding. In D. Kuhl & R. S. Siegler (Vol. Eds.), Cognition, perception, and language, Vol 2 (pp. 777-810). W. Damon (Gen. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (6th Ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Fink, B., Brookes, H., Neave, N., Manning, J. T., & Geary, D. C. (2006). Second to fourth digit ratio and numerical competence in children. Brain and Cognition, 61, 211-218.

Geary, D. C. (2006). Dyscalculia at an Early Age: Characteristics and Potential Influence on Socio-Emotional Development. In R.E. Tremblay & R.D. Peters (Eds.), Encyclopaedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Center of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; 1-4.

Geary, D. C. (2006). [Review of Gender differences in mathematics: An integrative psychological approach. Edited by A. M. Gallagher & J. C. Kaufman]. British Journal of Educational Studies, 54, 245-246.

Geary, D. C. (2005). Role of theory in study of learning difficulties in mathematics. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 305-307.

Geary, D. C. (2005). Difficultés d’apprentissage en arithmétique: Le role de la mémoire travail et de connaissance conceptuelle [Learning disabilities in arithmetic: Role of working memory and conceptual knowledge]. In M.-P. Noël (Ed.), Approches neuropsychologique et de développement des difficultés d’apprentissage en mathématiques [Neuropsychological and developmental approaches to learning disabilities inmathematics]. (pp. 169-191). Belgium: Solal.

Geary, D. C., & Hoard, M. K. (2005). Learning disabilities in arithmetic and mathematics: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. In J. I. D. Campbell (Ed.), Handbook of mathematical cognition (pp. 253-267). New York: Psychology Press.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Byrd-Craven, J. (2004). Strategy choices in simple and complex addition: Contributions of working memory and counting knowledge for children with mathematical disability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88, 121-151.

Geary, D. C. (2003). Learning disabilities in arithmetic: Problem solving differences and cognitive deficits. In H. L. Swanson, K. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (pp. 199-212). New York: Guilford Press.

Geary, D. C. (2004).  Mathematics and learning disabilities.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 4-15.

Geary, D. C. (2003). Arithmetical development: Commentary and future directions. In A. Baroody & A. Dowker (Eds.), The development of arithmetic concepts and skills: Constructing adaptive expertise (pp. 453-464). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

 Geary, D. C. (2002). Principles of evolutionary educational psychology. Learning and Individual Differences, 12, 317-345.

  Geary, D. C., & Hoard, M. K. (2002). Learning disabilities in basic mathematics: Deficits in memory and cognition. In J. M. Royer (Ed.), Mathematical cognition (pp. 93-115). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Geary, D. C. (2001). Darwinism, schooling, and mathematics: How an understanding of evolution can inform instructional practices. In T. Loveless (Ed.), Curriculum wars: Alternative approaches to reading and mathematics (pp. 85-107). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

 Geary, D. C., & Hoard, M. K. (2001). Numerical and arithmetical deficits in learning-disabled children: Relation to dyscalculia and dyslexia. Aphasiology, 15, 635-647.

Geary, D. C., Saults, S. J., Liu, F., & Hoard, M. K. (2000). Sex differences in spatial cognition, computational fluency, and arithmetical reasoning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77, 337-353.

Geary, D. C. (2000). From infancy to adulthood: The development of numerical abilities. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, II11-II16.

 Geary, D. C., Hamson, C. O., & Hoard, M. K. (2000). Numerical and arithmetical cognition: A longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77, 236-263.

Geary, D. C. (2000). Mathematical disorders: An overview for educators. Perspectives, 26, 6-9.

Geary, D. C., Liu, F., Chen, G.-P., Saults, S. J., & Hoard, M. K. (1999). Contributions of computational fluency to cross-national differences in arithmetical reasoning abilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 716-719.

Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., & Hamson, C. O. (1999). Numerical and arithmetical cognition: Patterns of functions and deficits in children at risk for a mathematical disability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 74, 213-239.

 Hoard, M. K., Geary, D. C., & Hamson, C. O. (1999). Numerical and arithmetical cognition: Performance of low- and average-IQ child. Mathematical Cognition, 5, 65-91.

Geary, D. C. (1999). Sex differences in mathematical abilities: Commentary on the math-fact retrieval hypothesis. Contemporary Educational Psychology 24, 267-274.

California Department of Education. (1999). Mathematics framework for California public schools: Kindergarten through grade twelve. Sacramento, CA: Author.

 Geary, D. C., & Lin, J. (1998). Numerical cognition: Age-related differences in the speed of executing biologically-primary and biologically-secondary processes. Experimental Aging Research, 24, 101- 137.

Geary, D. C., Hamson, C. O., Chen, G. P., Liu, F., & Hoard, M. K. (1998). A biocultural model of academic development. In S. G. Paris & H. M. Wellman (Eds.), Global prospects for education: Development, culture and schooling (pp. 13-43). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Geary, D. C., Hamson, C. O., Chen, G. P., Liu, F., Hoard, M. K., & Salthouse, T. A. (1997). Computational and reasoning abilities in arithmetic: Cross-generational change in China and the United States. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 425-430.

Geary, D. C. (1996). Sexual selection and sex differences in mathematical abilities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 229-284.

Geary, D. C. (1996). International differences in mathematical achievement: Their nature, causes, and consequences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 133-137.

Reprinted in Meehan, A. M. & Astor-Stetson (Eds.)(1998). Annual editions: Adolescent Psychology (pp. 71-75). Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill.

Geary, D. C., Bow-Thomas, C. C., Liu, F., & Siegler, R. S. (1996). Development of arithmetical competencies in Chinese and American children: Influence of age, language, and schooling. Child Development, 67, 2022- 2044.

Geary, D. C., Salthouse, T. A., Chen, G. P., & Fan, L. (1996). Are East Asian versus American differences in arithmetical ability a recent phenomenon? Developmental Psychology, 32, 254-262.

Geary, D. C. (1996). The problem size effect in mental addition: Developmental and cross-national trends. Mathematical Cognition, 2, 63- 93.

Geary, D. C. (1996). Biology, culture, and cross-national differences in arithmetical ability. In R. J. Sternberg & T. Ben-Zeev (Eds.), The nature of mathematical thinking (pp. 145-171). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Geary, D. C. (1995). Reflections of evolution and culture in children's cognition: Implications for mathematical development and instruction. American Psychologist, 50, 24-37.

Geary, D. C. (1994). Children's mathematical development: Research and practical applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Geary, D. C., & Siegler, R. S. (1994). Mathematical development and language. Science, 263, 903.

Fan, L., Geary, D. C., Bow-Thomas, C. C., & Siegler, R. S. (1994). Influences of numerical memory span on strategy choices in addition: A comparative study of numerical skill differences in Chinese and American children. [Chinese journal, Psychological Science, 17, 21-27].

Geary, D. C. (1993). Mathematical disabilities: Cognitive, neuropsychological, and genetic components. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 345-362.

Geary, D. C., Frensch, P. A., & Wiley, J. G. (1993). Simple and complex mental subtraction: Strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 8, 242-256.

Geary, D. C., Fan, L., Bow-Thomas, C. C., & Siegler, R. S. (1993). Even before formal instruction, Chinese children outperform American children in mental addition. Cognitive Development, 8, 517-529.

Frensch, P. A., & Geary, D. C. (1993). The effects of practice on component processes in complex mental addition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 433-456.

Geary, D. C., Cormier, P., Goggin, J. P., Estrada, P., & Lunn, M. C. E. (1993). Mental arithmetic: A componential analysis of speed-of-processing across monolingual, weak bilingual, and strong bilingual adults. International Journal of Psychology, 28, 185-201.

Geary, D. C., Fan, L., & Bow-Thomas, C. C. (1992). Numerical cognition: Loci of ability differences comparing children from China and the United States. Psychological Science, 3, 180-185.

Geary, D. C., Bow-Thomas, C. C., & Yao, Y. (1992). Counting knowledge and skill in cognitive addition: A comparison of normal and mathematically disabled children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 54, 372-391.

Geary, D. C., & Widaman, K. F. (1992). Numerical cognition: On the convergence of componential and psychometric models. Intelligence, 16, 47-80.

Widaman, K. F., Little, T. D., Geary, D. C., & Cormier, P. (1992). Individual differences in the development of skill in mental addition: Internal and external validation of chronometric models. Learning and Individual Differences, 4, 167-213.

Geary, D. C., Brown, S. C, & Samaranayake, V. A. (1991). Cognitive addition: A short longitudinal study of strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in normal and mathematically disabled children. Developmental Psychology, 27, 787-797.

Geary, D. C., & Wiley, J. G. (1991). Cognitive addition: Strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in young and elderly adults. Psychology and Aging, 6, 474-483.

Geary, D. C., & Brown, S. C (1991). Cognitive addition: Strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in gifted, normal, and mathematically disabled children. Developmental Psychology, 27, 398-406.

Geary, D. C. (1990). A componential analysis of an early learning deficit in mathematics. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49, 363-383.

Reprinted in Messer, D., & Dockrell, J. (Eds.) (1998). Developmental psychology: A reader. London, England: Arnold.

Geary, D. C., & Burlingham-Dubree, M. (1989). External validation of the strategy choice model for addition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 47, 175-192.

Widaman, K. F., Geary, D. C., Cormier, P., & Little, T. D. (1989). A componential model for mental addition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 898-919.

Geary, D. C., & Widaman, K. F. (1987). Individual differences in cognitive arithmetic. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 116, 154-171.

Geary, D. C., Widaman, K. F., Little, T. D., & Cormier, P. (1987). Cognitive addition: Comparison of learning disabled and academically normal elementary school children. Cognitive Development, 2, 149-169.

Geary, D. C. (1987). Cognitive addition: On the convergence of statistical and conceptual models. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25, 427-430.

Geary, D. C., Widaman, K. F., & Little, T. D. (1986). Cognitive addition and multiplication: Evidence for a single memory network. Memory & Cognition, 14, 478-487.

Widaman, K. F., Geary, D. C., Cormier, P., & Little, T. D. (1985). Cognitive processing strategies for complex addition. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society, 7, 385-389.

last updated: December 3, 2013

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