The University of Missouri at Columbia
Chemistry 212 - Organic Chemistry II - Winter Semester 2000

Instructor Professor Rainer Glaser
Office 321 Chemistry Building
Telephone (573) 882-0331
Chemistry 212 Course Web Site
Lecture MWRF 9:00 - 9:50, 126 Physics
First Lecture Monday, January 10
Office Hours MWF 10:00-10:30
Course Content Wade 4/e, Organic Chemistry, Chapters 16-26

Organic Chemistry
A Brief Introduction By Example

A very simple piece of DNA is shown. Understanding DNA is of interest to many areas including Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biology, Medicine, ... and of course Philosophy. To begin to understand anything about this very special molecule we need to analyze the molecule and then test hypotheses we have come up with.

recognize building blocks and functional groups
properties of building blocks and functional groups
connections between building blocks
polymerization of monomer
3d-stereochemistry of building blocks, monomers, polymers
structure determination

The Four Pillars of Modern Chemistry

In the modern view of chemistry, Experimentation, Theory & Computing, and Data Analysis are the three equally important sources of hypotheses and their testing grounds. The fourth pillar comprises the ensemble of Learning Methods.

About Learning in Customary Educational Settings

Similarly, no one has been able to confirm any certain limits to the speed with which man can learn. Schools and universities have usually been organized as if to suggest that all students learn at about the same rather plodding and regular speed. But, whenever the actual rates at which different people learn have been tested, nothing has been found to justify such an organization. Not only do individuals learn at vastly different speeds and in different ways, but man seems capable of astonishing feats of rapid learning when the attendant circumstances are favourable. It seems that, in customary educational settings, one habitually uses only a tiny fraction of one's learning capacities. [ Emphasis ours]

Excerpt from the Encyclopaedia Britannica

Complexities of Human Learning

Human learning is complex rather than simple. Learners are apt to learn more than one thing at a time. Sometimes this process is conscious, as when one simultaneously or rapidly assimilates many specific items of a whole. More often, the process is entirely or partly unconscious, as when the student learns some "content" consciously but at the same time absorbs unwittingly a great deal more from interrelationships, tones of voice, and so on.

Educators are therefore becoming increasingly concerned with these concomitant learnings. They are aware that the long-term significance of the arithmetical skill that the student consciously learns may be nugatory compared with the importance of what he learns about himself as a learner, about his capacities and limits, about his relationship with his teacher, about power and authority, about his relationships with his fellow students, about equality, collaboration, competition, and friendship. As educators become more knowledgeable about the importance of learning climates, they are impelled to abandon simplified techniques of teaching in favour of a more complex approach that views learning in the context of a matrix of relationships and forces that act upon the student, the teacher, the school, and the community.

Excerpt from the Encyclopaedia Britannica

Aristotle's World

Aristotle (384-322 BC) was very wrong ... we are getting better but beware!

Course Materials I. Books and Model Sets.

(1) Required Text: Organic Chemistry, Leroy G. Wade, Jr.; 4th ed., PRENTICE HALL, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, 1999. ISBN 0-13-922741-5. Cost: $102.70 (at MU Bookstore).

(2) Required study guide: Study Guide and Solutions Manual for Organic Chemistry, Jan W. Simek; 4th ed., PRENTICE HALL, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, 1999. ISBN 0-13-974023-6. Cost: $52 (at MU Bookstore).

(3) Recommended model set: HGS Molecular Model Set, C Set for Organic Chemistry, W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1972-X. Cost: $32.

(4) Potential Study Option: Organic Nomenclature - A Programmed Introduction, Traynham, J. G., 5th Ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. ISBN0-13-270752-7. Cost: $26.

(5) Potential Study Option: Pushing Electrons - A Guide for Students of Organic Chemistry, Weeks, S. P., 2nd ed., Updated version, Saunders College Publishing, Harcourt Brace & Company, 8th Floor, Orlando, Florida, 32887. ISBN 0-03-011652-X. Cost: $16.75.

(6) Potential Study Option: Electron Flow in Organic Chemistry, Scudder, P. H., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992. ISBN 0-471-61381-9. Cost: $__.

Course Materials II. Resources of the World Wide Web.

Inside and outside of the classroom, we will make extensive use of the world wide web as a tool for instruction. The current news items, the visualization centers and the reaction animations all are web based. In addition, the collaborative semester projects as well as the honors' section projects will involve online research using the WWW and posting of the resulting report on the WWW.

Course Materials III. Laboratory Teaching Materials.

In support of your laboratory studies, you will be using teaching materials from various sources. Some of the materials have been developed by faculty of the Department of Chemistry while other materials are adopted from Chemical Education Resources. For your convenience, all of these materials are available in a common electronic format and accessible at the same location. Since some of these materials are commerical products, these materials are located behind fire walls, that is, a password is required to access these files. You will obtain your password upon payment of a fee of 8.10 USD to the Organic Laboratory Coordinator. This payment has to be made by way of a check or a money order made out to "Chemical Education Resources."


Chemistry 210 or Chemistry 216 with a grade of C- or better. Access to the laboratory sessions requires prior payment of the fees for the Laboratory Teaching Materials.


I. Lectures

One of the four lecture periods will be employed to discuss the laboratory work and the Monday lecture will be dedicated to this purpose. The periods on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays will be used for lectures and, in a few instances, for computer-assisted instruction in the computer laboratories of the Department of Chemistry.

It is very important that you come to class well prepared! Do read the background material before it is covered in class. The lecture will be much more beneficial to you if you do. One of the advantages of being well prepared is simply that you need to write much less during the lecture and, instead, you will be able to follow the lecture intellectually. After the lecture, read the material again and test yourself, possibly in small groups. If uncertainties remain, review the material again or come to see the TA during office hours.

II. Laboratory

The 3.5-hours laboratory session constitutes an essential part of Chemistry 212. Ten sections are offered and these are scheduled for Monday afternoon (1A in A308, 1J in A309), Tuesday morning (1B in A308, 1H in A309) and Tuesday afternoon (1C in A308, 1K in A309), Wednesday afternoon (1D in A308, 1E in A308), and Thursday afternoon (1F in A308, 1G in A309). Since everybody will work on the same experiment in the same week, the Monday lecture will focus on the experiment of the week. In weeks without a laboratory session, the Monday period will be employed for other activities. For details about the laboratory component of Chemistry 212, follow the link to In The Laboratory.

The old policy: The laboratory component is an essential part of Chemistry 212 and under no circumstances will a student be allowed to take only the lecture part of Chemistry 212. On the other hand, students will be allowed to take the laboratory part of Chemistry 212 for two credits under a different course number. The most appropriate course number will be determined by the Director of Undergraduate Studies of the Department of Chemistry.

The new policy: Everything goes. You can sign up for the lecture-only version under course number Chemistry 300 for 3 credits. You can sign up for the lab-only version under course number Chemistry 301 for 2 credits.

III. Computer-Laboratory

You will engage in a variety of computer-assisted learning activities. These activities will include working with web-based teaching materials and hands-on molecular drawing and modelling. Some of these activities will be embedded into instructions during the class periods, while most of these activities will occur outside of the lecture periods. The web-based activities may be pursued at any time from any place. The molecular drawing and modeling exercises require special software only available in the computer laboratory of the Department of Chemistry.

It is one of the aims of the web-based teaching materials to improve your understanding of structure and to begin to see how structure affects function. The visualization centers provide accurate structures of selected molecules in an online format. Each structure can be viewed from user-selected perspective and a mini-tutorial is provided for guidance.

Another important aim of the web-based teaching materials concerns the construction of connections between the chemistry you learn and the real world. The news items are based on the philosophy that "newspapers are the mirrors of society and newspaper articles therefore are the sources which allow you to construct the important relations between society and chemistry." There is one "news item" per chapter and it includes one published newspaper article, editorial comments, and questions. The editorial comment section often includes links to high quality sites on the world wide web. Further guidance to WWW sites is provided by the collection of chemistry related web destinations. Note that the list of chemistry related links is permanently under construction. Feel free to tell me about sites you would like to have added.

Hands-on molecular drawing and modeling activities will make use of ChemOffice. ChemDraw is a structure drawing program and Chem3D is a versatile molecular modelling program. You will learn how to draw structures and include those in reports. You will learn how to find the best structure of a molecule and you can visualize the molecular orbitals and many other properties.

The material covered in the visualization centers, the news items and in the hands-on drawing & modelling sessions will be revisited in the tests. About 25 percent of each test will be concerned with these materials.

IV. Exercises - Offline and Online

You will be asked to work a selection of the problems in the textbook and online multiple-choice tests posted at the Companion Web Site accompanying the text by Wade 4/e. Assignments will be posted on the Chemistry 212 Course Web Site. You are not required to return the answers. To work on the problems is one of the main purposes of the review/discussion sections. Some of these same problems will be revisited in the tests. To be precise, one half of the tests will inquire about problems that have been assigned previously.

V. Collaborative Semester Projects and Peer Review

The semester projects will be pursued by small groups of students (5-6 students).

The establishment of relevance is an important co-factor in the learning process. A excellent way to establish the relevance of the content of Chemistry 212 is by way of connecting the course content to news items of current interest. To construct this connection and the creation of a relatyed problem assignment are the subject of the Project Assignment.

The Collaborative Semester Projects will be evaluated via peer review. Aside from learning content, you will be learning how to judge / be judged via peer review. Your ability to prevail in peer review will, certainly no less than content knowledge, affect your success in future.

VI. Reviews - Discussion List

Discussion/review sessions will be scheduled in the evening in order to fit in with your schedules. These sessions are intended to serve three purposes: First, further discussion of the more difficult topics presented in class (no additional material), secondly, discussions of problems, and - most importantly - general Q&A and problem solving strategies. Dates will be announced in class as required. See also link reviews.

To encourage discussions amongst yourselves, you will be subscribed to a Chemistry 212 discussion list. Details about the discussion lists will be given in lecture. See also links to showme accounts and discussion list.

Examinations and Grading

The Greek philosopher Socrates argued that the unexamined life is not worth living. He is right. Accordingly, there will be three 1-hour-examinations (100 points each), one collaborative group project (100 points assigned by peer review), and the comprehensive final (200 points). There are 12 laboratory sessions in which you can earn a total of 300 points; 25 points per laboratory. A maximum of 900 points can be earned in Chemistry 212. The tests will focus on the materials covered recently, but it is expected that you recall the fundamentals of previously studied chapters. Purpose and details about the collaborative group projects are described on a separate web page. Quizzes will occur only in the laboratory and they will count towards the 30 points per experiment.

In previous years, no grades were assigned to individual tests. After each examination a graph was generated representing the performance of the class and this graph enabled the students to assess their relative performances. After completion of the 1-hour-examinations and the group projects and before the final examination, the students were informed about the point/grade relation. Grades were assigned based on the average of the class and the class distribution. In a previous semester, for example, with a course average of 59 percent, the following cuts were used: Grade A (14.9%) above 76 %, B grade (22.6%) above 64 %, C grade (35.1 %) above 50 %, and so on. Plus/minus grades were given within this framework. A+ for the top 3 percent. You can check out the histograms and grade assignments for Chemistry 212 from previous semester to see how this worked out.

Beginning with WS99, the grading has been changed to an absolute grading scheme. Grading is now be based on competency rather than competition. The following cuts will be used: Grade A above 85 %, grade B above 70 %, grade C above 55 %, and grade D above 40 %.

Deadlines for submissions of semester projects and for the submission of peer reviews are specified on the assignments and also can be found on the Chemistry 212 Schedule. Unless there exists a good reason, submissions received after the deadline will not be graded and automatically receive a score of zero points.

In concert with the policy of the Department of Chemistry, there will be no make up exams. If a test is missed for a legitimate reason (sickness and the like with some type of acceptable written proof), a score will be determined for this missed test that is based on your average overall performance. If you know in advance, that you will not be able to take an exam for a certain reason, talk to the instructor before the date of that test. If you do miss a test without a legitimate reason, you will receive a score of zero points for that test.

Time and date of the final examination are determined by Article V of the Academic Regulations which are designed to protect students from irregularities in the administration of final examinations. The following two excerpts from Article V are relevant to this graduate class. (1) No teacher will hold an examination during any time other than the regular meeting time of the class or the time as approved by the Registrar for both final and multi-section examinations. The only exception is that examinations in courses numbered 400 and above may be conducted at any time agreeable to both the teacher and the students. (2) No examination may be held during Stop Day.

Academic Honesty

Academic honesty is fundamental to activities and principles of a university. All members of the academic community must be confident that each person's work has been responsibly and honorably acquired, developed, and presented. Any effort to gain an advantage not given to all students is dishonest whether or not the effort is successful. The academic community regards academic dishonesty as an extremely serious matter, with serious consequences that range from probation to expulsion. When in doubt about plagiarism, paraphrasing, quoting, or collaboration, consult the course instructor. Proven academic dishonesty will be reported to the Provost for Academic Affairs and the student's Dean.

Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act

If you have special needs as addressed by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and need accommodations (for example, extended testing time, note takers, large print materials), please inform your instructor privately as soon as possible. In most circumstances, students with disabilities seeking academic accommodations should also register with the Access Office, A048 Brady Commons, 882-4696. As necessary, the Access Office will review documentation about your disability and about the need for accommodations you are requesting. The Access office will then assist in planning for any necessary accommodations.

Excellence is a Habit