This news item was created by students Cornell Blake, Ken Boc, Scott Jones, and Corey Allen as part of their Chemistry 212 Collaborative Group Activities in WS00 under the guidance of Prof. Rainer Glaser.

Glaser's "Chemistry is in the News"
To Accompany Wade Organic Chemistry 4/e.
Chapter 19. Amines


For each of the following questions, please refer to the following article:

DEATH TOLL FROM MIXING DRUGS RISES
by Marika Lynch, Curtis Morgan and Ana Acle (Miami Herald, September 22, 1999)


Editorial Comments

Cocaine, LSD, and XTC all contain amine groups and are harmful drugs. All these drugs and other combinations have increased in their uses and subsequently lead to death.

Cocaine comes from the leaves of the cocoa plant. Cocaine "free base" is commonly treated with hydrochloric acid to produce cocaine hydrochloride. This is the form commonly known as "snow", and is snorted. Cocaine hydrochloride is not volatile and decomposes easily. Treatment with sodium bicarbonate converts it to "rock" for easier storage.

LSD derived from the ergot fungus that grows on rye or from lysergic acid amide, as found in morning glory seeds. LSD is a hallucinogen that is composed of fused heterocycles. It can cause permanent mental illness, impaired memory, short attention span, and even death. Its increasing in use among teenagers.

XTC, like cocaine, is a stimulant that is often used at clubs and raves. It increases the body temperature and is such a strong drug that people take a depressor to bring themselves down. Combinations of these drugs can have lethal effects. Some drugs are common, like XTC, that it is possible to purchase using chemfinder.

Dade County in Miami, Florida, hopes to educate about these drugs. They plan to arrest more users and dealers, and to terminate the licenses of places that hold rave parties.

Pertinent Text References
Chapter 19. Amines.
Chapter 16-11. Fused Heterocyclic Compounds




Questions

Question 1: Give the structures and the IUPAC names of LSD, XTC, and cocaine (both cocaine hydrochloride and free base).

Question 2: How and for what reason are these reactions and compounds used in the drug market? For storage. To escape detection from authorities due to the fact that these drugs are illegal within the United States.

Question 3: What are the reagents necessary for the preparation of free base from cocaine hydrochloride? What is the reagent needed to return to the amine salt? NaOH or NaHCO3. HCl.

Question 4: What effects would mixing these drugs with alcohol have on their subsequent reactions? Intensify side effects.

Question 5: What percentage of high school seniors reported using LSD? 13.6%.

Question 6: How long does ecstasy stay in the system? About 48 hrs.