Hexad Selections, Chemistry 3700, Spring 2016
(created 03/23/16; last updated 04/03/16)

Nutritional and Health Benefits of Pulses:
A Chemistry Perspective

Group Pulse (Dish) Benefit Phytochemical or Equivalent Concentration Structure & Function
Ryan L., Dalton L. & Thomas S. Chickpeas ('Dish') Anti-diabetic beta-sitosterol ca. 80 mg / 100 g chickpeas Lowers blood glucose, LDL, and other cholesterol levels; likely through interaction with PPAR (peroxisome proliferation activated receptor
Nicole O. & Jason T. (updated 4/6) Navy Beans (Navy Bean Soup) Phytase Enzymes: Phytase TBD Phytase converts indigestible, organic forms of phosphorus (phytate) into digestible, organic phosphorus, aiding in the grown and the repair of cells and tissues.
Keenan B. & Kevin B. Mung Beans (Mung Beans and Coconut Curry) Anti-diabetic Cyanidin 3-glucoside ca. 380 microgram/g Protects adipocytes from insulin resistance by inhibiting the activation of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase, causes preadipocytes to differentiate that increases insulin sensitivity, reduces insulin resistance due to obesity by increasing transcription of Fox01, and causes an increase in GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake by adipocytes.
Michael L. & Michael R. Black Eyed Peas (Gumbo) Metabolism Vitamin: B3 (Niacin) 1.85-4 mg / 100 g Precursor to nicotimamide, NAD+ and NADP. The latter are essential for several cellular functions (e.g., electron transport, DNA synthesis).
Will K., Nick S. & Evan J. Peas, Pisum sativum L. ('Dish') hypocholesterolemic Type B Saponins ca. 1.5 g / kg peas Bile salts form micelles with cholesterol in the intestinal tract, which help facilitate its absorption. Saponins then bind with bile salts and cholesterol, which causes a reduction of blood cholesterol by preventing its re-absorption.
Jacob H. & Sushil S. Soybean (Soybean Hummus) Anti-osteoporosis Genistein 0.2 - 1 mg / g soybeans Genistein enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation by activation of ER, p38MAPK-Runx2, and NO/cGMP pathways, and it inhibits osteoclast formation and bone resorption through inducing osteoclastogenic inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and blocking NF-κB signaling. These two mechanisms work in conjunction to decrease bone loss.
Shelby H. & Kyle M. Soybean ('Dish') Blood Pressure Lowering Soyasaponin 1 TBD SRI Inhibitor
Grace H. & Taylor K. Chickpeas (Peanut Butter Chocolate Chip Cookies) Cholesterol Lowering Dietary Fiber ca. 10% by weight; ca. 10 grams/100 grams peas The insoluble dietary fiber, cellulose, is an unbranched linear chain of several thousand glucose units with beta-1,4-glucosidic linkages. It creates a resistance to biological deterioration and acid hydrolysis. The soluble dietary fiber, pectin, consists of a complex group of polysaccharides made of D-galacturonic acid. It has a gelling behavior that is dependent on the level of methoxylation. Pectin has been linked to lowering cholesterol and other fats from the body due to this gelling behavior.
Samantha M. & Sydney J. Lima Beans (Succotash) Mental Alertness Tyrosine ca. 400 mg per ounce (28g) It makes the catecholamines further in the biosynthesis. More information to come.
Webb P., Guy H. & Michael P. Black Beans (Pizza) Anti-Carcinogenic Kaempferol ca. 9 mg per 100 gram of black beans Kaempferol is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid, found in a variety of plants and plant-derived foods. And has been shown to encourage apoptosis in cancer cells. There are multiple possible mechanisms.
Kim H.; Makayla T. & Carston R. Chickpeas (Hummus) Anti-Carcinogenic (Bone, Breast, Prostate) Daidzein / (S)-Equol ca. 0.04 mg / 100 gram Daidzein is an isoflavone. It acts primarily on beta-estrogen receptors, potent tumor suppressors which reduce transcription of many gene sequences in certain cells (especially those in the breast, bone, and prostate). In this way, the beta-estrogen receptor acts as a partial antagonist to the alpha receptor, resulting in daidzein's antineoplastic effects without overly affecting endogenous hormones.
Andy M. & Conner E. Black Beans ('Dish') Brain Health Vitamin B1, Thiamine ca. 0.4 mg / cup of beans Two enzymes require thiamine as a cofactor in the Krebs cycle. Decrease of ATP in brain can lead to build up of toxins that can lead to delirium. Proper functioning of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) is needed for producing acetylcholine and myelin, essential for neurotransmitting.
Kaitlyn C. & Casey H. Chickpeas (Chicken and Chickpea Stew) Decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease Secoisolariciresinol, a lignan ca. 35 mg / 100 g beans Secoisolariciresinol decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but research is still being conducted to prove this theory. Dietary fiber may be responsible in part for associations observed with lignan intake. Dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, reduces the risks of cardiovascular disease. Dietary fiber lowers blood pressure, decreases C-reactive protein levels, decreases metabolic syndrome and decreases insulin resistance. Although some studies indicate dietary fiber has weak lipid lowering associations, soluble fiber is more highly associated with lower serum lipids, lower blood pressure, and fewer symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, a higher intake of chickpeas, which contain secoisolariciresinol, can decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Stuart A. & Tyler O. Pigeon Peas ('Dish') TBD Minerals: Iron, Zinc, and Calcium TBD TBD
Angelou S. & Zania N. TBD ('Dish') TBD TBD TBD TBD
Liam D. & Cait D. Kidney Bean (Rajma) Cognitive functioning Folic Acid 141±13 micrograms/gram of cooked bean Consists of a pteridine ring and glutamic acid molecule joined by a p-aminobenzoic acid molecule. In body, is converted to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate through the folate cycle, where it participates in a methylation reaction, making possible greater than fourty essential bodily functions. Specifically, plays critical role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters which play a critical role in cognitive development/ functioning.
Ethan P. & Chris P. TBD ('Dish') TBD TBD TBD TBD