Science Topic Resources (Posted 07/15/17; Last Update: 04/24/18)
The Opioid Epidemic: Uses, Abuses, and Innovation


Citing and Using a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
To access to MU resources from off-campus sites, learn about Virtual Private Networking (VPN).
To understand PDF files, look at tutorials on youtube (i.e., Understanding the Portable Document Format | lynda.com

Drugs, Drugs, Drugs,...
Traditional Drugs: Morphine (morphine sulfate: "Roxanol", "Duramorph"), Heroin, Codeine, Thebaine (paramorphine), Desomorphine, Papaverine.
Game Changers: Oxycodone ("Oxycontin", "Percodan" w/ aspirin, "Percocet" w/ paracetamol).
Hydrocodone ("Vicodin" w/ paracetamol), Tramadol, Pethidine ("Demerol").
Real Killers: Fentanyl, Carfentanil, N-Methylcarfentanil, U-47700.
Illustration of Opioid Potency.

Drugs to Fight Drugs... ("Get over it!")
Methadone
Buprenorphine
Naloxone (the alkene, a.k.a. Nalcan)
Naltrexone (the cyclopropane)
Vivitrol (naltrexone for extended-release injectable suspension)
NIDA: Medications to Treat Opioid Addiction
Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence (Review)
Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadonemaintenance for opioid dependence (Review)
Risk Factors for Relapse and Higher Costs Among Medicaid Members with Opioid Dependence or Abuse: Opioid Agonists...

Missouri Resources...
MO.gov: Missouri Opioid Crisis
Missouri Opioid State Targeted Response: Missouri Opioid STR
DEA 360o STRATEGY and WA:KE UP ST. LOUIS
US Senator Claire McCaskill: The Business of Opioids...

Web Sites, Youtube Animations...
NIH - National Institute on Drug Abuse: Opioids
NIDANotes - The Latest in NIDA Drug Abuse Research
STAT: Reporting from the frontiers of health and medicine: STAT forecast: Opioids could kill nearly 500,000 Americans in the next decade
NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse for Teachers (last update July 2017): Mechanism of Action (PDF)
ALILA Medical Media: Mechanism of action of opioids
Healthcare Triage: The Science of Opioids
Pharmacology Corner: Opioid Pharmacology Part 1 (7-transmembrane receptor coupled to G-protein), Part 2 (Mu, Delta, Kappa) and Part 3 (ORL1 or NOP).
ScienceDirect: Opioid Peptide. Opioid Peptides and Receptors (about the N-terminal Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe signature sequence)
eMedExpert: Differences between Opioid and Non-opioid Analgesics
Society of Endocrinology: Prostaglandins
The National Academies Press, 2017: Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemics (Free PDF Download)
BRAIN PRO TIPS: The Advanced Guide to Opioids as Antidepressants

Articles in Newspapers, Trade Journals, ....
C&EN 05-16-2016: Naloxone for all. Halford, B. C&EN Global Enterp. 2016, 94, 36-38.
Missourian 06-21-2016: Bill expanding access to naloxone signed into law (PDF)
C&EN 12-19-2016: Opioid epidemic continued. Torrice, M. C&EN Global Enterp. 2016, 94, 44.
WSJ Video 01-03-2017: American Epidemic: The Nation's Struggle With Opioid Addiction
Inverse 03-04-2017: Scientists Have Developed a Non-Addictive Opioid
WaPo 03-23-2017: Senator to investigate opioid makers' role in drug crisis (PDF)
W5 Vancouver Video 04-25-2017: Opioid Fentanyl Street Crisis Documentary
NYT 05-31-2017: Ohio Sues Drug Makers, Saying They Aided Opioid Epidemic (PDF)
NYT 07-13-2017: A Tide of Opioid-Dependent Newborns Forces Doctors to Rethink Treatment (PDF)
NYT 07-15-2017: The Lawyer, The Addict (PDF)
WaPo 07-17-2017: Missouri becomes last state to create drug-monitoring plan (PDF)
Business Insider 07-27-2017: The Senate probe into big pharma's hand in the opioid crisis just got bigger (PDF)
NYT & Frontline 08-04-2017: Opioid Users Are Filling Jails. Why Don't Jails Treat Them? (PDF)
Reuters 08-04-2017: DEA proposes cutting production of some opioid painkillers (PDF)
NYT 08-04-17: Ted Stanley, Whose Fentanyl Lollipop Treated Chronic Pain, Dies at 77 (PDF)
WaPo 08-10-2017: Trump says opioid crisis is a national emergency, pledges more money and attention (PDF)
Bloomberg 08-15-2017: Big Pharma's Tobacco Moment as Star Lawyers Push Opioid Suits
Investors 08-25-2017: Is Big Pharma Addicted To Opioid Painkillers?
NYT 09-02-2017: The First Count of Fentanyl Deaths in 2016: Up 540% in Three Years (Permalink)
Council on Foreign Relations 09-14-2017: The U.S. Opioid Epidemic (PDF)
The Guardian 09-15-2017: These mothers saw the opioid epidemic before anyone else. No one listened (PDF)
NYT 09-17-2017: Amid Opioid Crisis, Insurers Restrict Pricey, Less Addictive Painkillers (PDF)
NYT 10-07-2017: As Overdose Deaths Pile Up, a Medical Examiner Quits the Morgue (PDF)
NYT 10-26-2017: Trump to Declare Opioid Crisis a 'Public Health Emergency' (PDF)
NYT 11-10-2017: The Insanity of Taxpayer-Funded Addiction (PDF)
Columbia Tribune 11-11-2017: Missouri opioid deaths on track to exceed traffic fatalities (PDF)
C&EN 11-13-2017: How chemists are responding to the opioid epidemic links to four cover stories (PDF1, PDF2, PDF3, PDF4)
WaPo 11-13-2017: Mexican traffickers making New York a hub for lucrative and deadly fentanyl (PDF)
WSJ Video 11-16-2017: The Way to Save Opioid Addicts | Moving Upstream
WaPo 11-21-2017: Counterfeit opioid pills are tricking users - sometimes with lethal results (PDF)
The Atlantic 11-29-2017: No Family Is Safe From This Epidemic (PDF)
WSJ 12-08-2017: Opioids: The Mother Who Knew Everything and Saw Nothing
WSJ 12-17-2017: People who share drugs with an addict who overdoses are increasingly being charged with homicide (PDF)
NYT 12-22-2017: The Opioid Crisis Is Getting Worse -- Particularly for Black Americans
NYT 01-03-2018: The Giant, Under Attack One of America's biggest rehab companies built an empire. But after a patient named Gary Benefield died, its enemies--investors and business rivals alike--struck hard.
WaPo 01-10-2018: A doctor's wife threatened to expose the opioid ring he ran, so he killed her, officials said (PDF)
NYT 01-12-2018: Opioid Addiction Knows No Color, but Its Treatment Does (PDF)
NYT 01-17-2018: The Wrong Way to Treat Opioid Addiction (PDF)
NYT 01-21-2018: How a "Perfect Storm" in New Hampshire Has Fueled an Opioid Crisis (PDF)
NYT 01-21-2018: 1 Son, 4 Overdoses, 6 Hours (PDF)
WSJ 01-24-2018: Stamp Out Easy Mail Access to Deadly Fentanyl, Senate Report Urges (PDF)
NYT 01-27-2018: After Surgery in Germany, I Wanted Vicodin, Not Herbal Tea (PDF)
WST 02-10-2018: Purdue Pharma to Stop Promoting OxyContin to U.S. Doctors (PDF)
Politico 02-21-2018: The Myth of What's Driving the Opioid Crisis (PDF)
NYT 03-05-2018: Overshadowed by the Opioid Crisis: A Comeback by Cocaine (PDF)
NYT 03-16-2018: 5 Doctors Are Charged With Taking Kickbacks for Fentanyl Prescriptions (PDF)
NYT 03-27-2018: Medicare Is Cracking Down on Opioids. Doctors Fear Pain Patients Will Suffer (PDF)
WaPo 04-07-2018: As the opioid epidemic rages, the fight against addiction moves to an Ohio courtroom (PDF)
WSJ 04-10-2018: How Death Strikes Around the U.S. (PDF)
WSJ 04-16-2018: Maine Lawmakers Clash With Governor Over Naloxone Access (PDF)
WSJ 04-17-2018: The disturbing reason behind the spike in organ donations (PDF)
NYT 04-21-2018: An Opioid Crisis Foretold (PDF)

Scientific Articles on Analgesics
Chemical Aspects of Local and Regional Anesthesia Ostercamp, D. L.; Brunsvold, R. J. Chem. Educ., 2006, 83, 1816-1820. (PDF)
Chemical Aspects of General Anesthesia: Part I. From Ether to Halothane Ostercamp, D. L.; Brunsvold, R. J. Chem. Educ., 2006, 83, 1821-1831. (PDF)
Chemical Aspects of General Anesthesia: Part II. Current Practices Ostercamp, D. L.; Brunsvold, R. J. Chem. Educ., 2006, 83, 1826-1831. (PDF)
Mechanisms of Non-Opioid Analgesics Beyond Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition Hamza, M.; Dionne, R. A. Current Molecular Pharmacology 2009, 2, 1-14. (PDF)
Molecular Mechanisms of Opioid Receptor-dependent Signaling and Behavior Al-Hasani, R.; Bruchas, M. R. Anesthesiology 2011, 115, 1363-81. (PDF)
Opioid Peptides, Przewlocki, R. In Neuroscience in the 21st Century, Pfaff, D. W. (ed.). Springer: New York, 1997. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-1997-6_54.
Opioid Peptides and Receptors, Kieffer, B. L. In Encylopedia of Neuroscience, 2009, 235-240.
Modulation of Glycine-Mediated Spinal Neurotransmission for the Treatment of Chronic Pain Cioffi, C. L. J. Med. Chem., 2017, xx, xxx-xxx. (PDF)

Scientific Articles on Opioid Analytical Chemistry
Laboratory Testing for Prescription Opioids Michael C. Milone J. Med. Toxicol. 2012, 8, 408-416. (PDF)
Unambiguous Characterization of Analytical Markers in Complex, Seized Opiate Samples Using an Enhanced Ion Mobility Trace Detector-Mass Spectrometer Wilson, et al. Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 10772-10779. (PDF)
Quantitative determination of opioids in whole blood using fully automated dried blood spot desorption coupled to on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS Verplaetse, R. and Henion, J. Drug Test. Analysis 2016, 8, 30-38. (PDF)

Scientific Articles on Structures of Opioid Receptors
Opioid Receptors Revealed. Chem. Eng. News 2012, 90, 11. Read the Nature papers: 10.1038/nature10954 and 10.1038/nature10939.
Recent Advances in Structure-Based Drug Design Targeting Class A G Protein-Coupled Receptors Utilizing Crystal Structures and Computational Simulations Lee, Y.; Basith, S.; and Choi, S. J. Med. Chem. 2018,xx, xxx-xxx. (PDF)

Scientific Articles on Syntheses of Opioid Agonists and Antagonists
Novel Opioid Analgesics and Side Effects. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2017, 8, 1638-1640. NFEPP: N-(3-fluoro-1-phenethylpiperidine-4-yl)-N-phenylpropionamide. A close relative of fentanyl.
Seeking (and Finding) Biased Ligands of the Kappa Opioid Receptor Bohn, L. M.; Aube, J. ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2017, 8, 694-700.
Street-Like Synthesis of Krokodil Results in the Formation of an Enlarged Cluster of Known and New Morphinans Soares et al. Chem. Res. Tox., 2017, 17, 1609-1621. (PDF)