Science Topic Resources (Posted 07/15/17; Last Update: 12/12/17)
The Opioid Epidemic: Opioid Chemistry


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Drugs, Drugs, Drugs,...
Traditional Drugs: Morphine (morphine sulfate: "Roxanol", "Duramorph"), Heroin, Codeine.
Game Changers: Oxycodone ("Oxycontin", "Percodan" w/ aspirin, "Percocet" w/ paracetamol).
Hydrocodone ("Vicodin" w/ paracetamol), Tramadol, Pethidine ("Demerol").
Real Killers: Fentanyl, Carfentanil, N-Methylcarfentanil, U-47700.
Illustration of Opioid Potency.

Drugs to Fight Drugs... ("Get over it!")
Methadone
Buprenorphine
Naloxone (the alkene, a.k.a. Nalcan)
Naltrexone (the cyclopropane)
Vivitrol (naltrexone for extended-release injectable suspension)
NIDA: Medications to Treat Opioid Addiction
Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence (Review)
Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadonemaintenance for opioid dependence (Review)
Risk Factors for Relapse and Higher Costs Among Medicaid Members with Opioid Dependence or Abuse: Opioid Agonists...

Missouri Resources...
MO.gov: Missouri Opioid Crisis
Missouri Opioid State Targeted Response: Missouri Opioid STR
DEA 360o STRATEGY and WA:KE UP ST. LOUIS
US Senator Claire McCaskill: The Business of Opioids...

Web Sites, Youtube Animations...
NIH - National Institute on Drug Abuse: Opioids
NIDANotes - The Latest in NIDA Drug Abuse Research
STAT: Reporting from the frontiers of health and medicine: STAT forecast: Opioids could kill nearly 500,000 Americans in the next decade
NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse for Teachers (last update July 2017): Mechanism of Action (PDF)
ALILA Medical Media: Mechanism of action of opioids
Healthcare Triage: The Science of Opioids
Pharmacology Corner: Opioid Pharmacology Part 1 (7-transmembrane receptor coupled to G-protein), Part 2 (Mu, Delta, Kappa) and Part 3 (ORL1 or NOP).
ScienceDirect: Opioid Peptide. Opioid Peptides and Receptors (about the N-terminal Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe signature sequence)
eMedExpert: Differences between Opioid and Non-opioid Analgesics
Society of Endocrinology: Prostaglandins
The National Academies Press, 2017: Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemics (Free PDF Download)
BRAIN PRO TIPS: The Advanced Guide to Opioids as Antidepressants

Articles in Newspapers, Trade Journals, ....
C&EN 05-16-2016: Naloxone for all. Halford, B. C&EN Global Enterp. 2016, 94, 36-38.
Missourian 06-21-2016: Bill expanding access to naloxone signed into law (PDF)
C&EN 12-19-2016: Opioid epidemic continued. Torrice, M. C&EN Global Enterp. 2016, 94, 44.
WSJ Video 01-03-2017: American Epidemic: The Nation's Struggle With Opioid Addiction
Inverse 03-04-2017: Scientists Have Developed a Non-Addictive Opioid
WaPo 03-23-2017: Senator to investigate opioid makers' role in drug crisis (PDF)
W5 Vancouver Video 04-25-2017: Opioid Fentanyl Street Crisis Documentary
NYT 05-31-2017: Ohio Sues Drug Makers, Saying They Aided Opioid Epidemic (PDF)
NYT 07-13-2017: A Tide of Opioid-Dependent Newborns Forces Doctors to Rethink Treatment (PDF)
NYT 07-15-2017: The Lawyer, The Addict (PDF)
WaPo 07-17-2017: Missouri becomes last state to create drug-monitoring plan (PDF)
Business Insider 07-27-2017: The Senate probe into big pharma's hand in the opioid crisis just got bigger (PDF)
NYT & Frontline 08-04-2017: Opioid Users Are Filling Jails. Why Don't Jails Treat Them? (PDF)
Reuters 08-04-2017: DEA proposes cutting production of some opioid painkillers (PDF)
NYT 08-04-17: Ted Stanley, Whose Fentanyl Lollipop Treated Chronic Pain, Dies at 77 (PDF)
WaPo 08-10-2017: Trump says opioid crisis is a national emergency, pledges more money and attention (PDF)
Bloomberg 08-15-2017: Big Pharma's Tobacco Moment as Star Lawyers Push Opioid Suits
Investors 08-25-2017: Is Big Pharma Addicted To Opioid Painkillers?
NYT 09-02-2017: The First Count of Fentanyl Deaths in 2016: Up 540% in Three Years (Permalink)
Council on Foreign Relations 09-14-2017: The U.S. Opioid Epidemic (PDF)
The Guardian 09-15-2017: These mothers saw the opioid epidemic before anyone else. No one listened (PDF)
NYT 09-17-2017: Amid Opioid Crisis, Insurers Restrict Pricey, Less Addictive Painkillers (PDF)
NYT 10-07-2017: As Overdose Deaths Pile Up, a Medical Examiner Quits the Morgue (PDF)
NYT 10-26-2017: Trump to Declare Opioid Crisis a 'Public Health Emergency' (PDF)
NYT 11-10-2017: The Insanity of Taxpayer-Funded Addiction (PDF)
Columbia Tribune 11-11-2017: Missouri opioid deaths on track to exceed traffic fatalities (PDF)
WaPo 11-13-2017: Mexican traffickers making New York a hub for lucrative and deadly fentanyl (PDF)
WSJ Video 11-16-2017: The Way to Save Opioid Addicts | Moving Upstream
WaPo 11-21-2017: Counterfeit opioid pills are tricking users - sometimes with lethal results (PDF)
The Atlantic 11-29-2017: No Family Is Safe From This Epidemic (PDF)
WSJ 12-08-2017: Opioids: The Mother Who Knew Everything and Saw Nothing

Scientific Articles on ...
Chemical Aspects of Local and Regional Anesthesia Ostercamp, D. L.; Brunsvold, R. J. Chem. Educ., 2006, 83, 1816-1820. (PDF)
Chemical Aspects of General Anesthesia: Part I. From Ether to Halothane Ostercamp, D. L.; Brunsvold, R. J. Chem. Educ., 2006, 83, 1821-1831. (PDF)
Chemical Aspects of General Anesthesia: Part II. Current Practices Ostercamp, D. L.; Brunsvold, R. J. Chem. Educ., 2006, 83, 1826-1831. (PDF)
Mechanisms of Non-Opioid Analgesics Beyond Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition Hamza, M.; Dionne, R. A. Current Molecular Pharmacology 2009, 2, 1-14. (PDF)
Opioid Receptors Revealed. Chem. Eng. News 2012, 90, 11. Read the Nature papers: 10.1038/nature10954 and 10.1038/nature10939.
Novel Opioid Analgesics and Side Effects. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2017, 8, 1638-1640. NFEPP: N-(3-fluoro-1-phenethylpiperidine-4-yl)-N-phenylpropionamide. A close relative of fentanyl.
Opioid Peptides, Przewlocki, R. In Neuroscience in the 21st Century, Pfaff, D. W. (ed.). Springer: New York, 1997. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-1997-6_54.
Opioid Peptides and Receptors, Kieffer, B. L. In Encylopedia of Neuroscience, 2009, 235-240.
Seeking (and Finding) Biased Ligands of the Kappa Opioid Receptor Bohn, L. M.; Aube, J. ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2017, 8, 694-700.
Modulation of Glycine-Mediated Spinal Neurotransmission for the Treatment of Chronic Pain Christopher L. Cioffi J. Med. Chem., 2017, xx, xxx-xxx. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00956