Current Status and Future Trends in American Agriculture: Farming with Grass
J.E. Ikerd, Professor
Emeritus of Agricultural Economics,
Abstract: The growing popularity of organic, grass-fed, and locally grown foods reflects a growing consumer rebellion against an industrial, global food system. Declining supplies of fossil energy, rising concern for global climate change, and growing social and economic inequities will exert even greater pressures on industrial agriculture in the decades ahead. These are all ultimately issues of national and global food security. Eventually, society must confront the problematic reality: the current industrial food system is not sustainable – ecologically, socially, or economically. Confinement animal feeding operations (CAFOs) will be among the first casualties of this confrontation because CAFOs epitomize the inherent lack of sustainability of a profit-driven, fossil-energy-dependent, industrial agriculture. Grass farming, on the other hand, epitomizes the potential for a quality-driven, solar-energy-dependent, sustainable agriculture. Animal agriculture will be needed to help feed the world in the post-industrial twenty-first century, and most animals in the future will be raised on grass.
Key words: industrial food system—sustainable agriculture—fossil energy—climate change—social inequity—grass farming
The American food system is in the final stages of industrialization. Industrialization is quite commonly associated with manufacturing, but the transition from agrarian to manufacturing economies is only a consequence, rather than the essence, of industrialization. The fundamental purpose of industrialization is to enhance productivity and economic efficiency by making it possible to produce a greater value of output from a given amount of input. The basic strategies of industrialization are specialization, standardization, and consolidation of control. As agriculture became more specialized and standardized, it could be mechanized and routinized, thus allowing—at times forcing—individual farmers to consolidate more land, labor, and capital under their control. As farms became larger, many farmers were “freed from farming” to take the jobs in the factories and offices in urban centers, manufacturing things that couldn’t be produced on farms or produced as efficiently in rural areas. The factories and offices in urban areas were only the most obvious symbols of the industrial economy, as they employed the strategies of industrialization in their pursuit of ever greater productive and economic efficiency. The American food system as a whole has followed the same basic path of specialization, standardization, and consolidation and today is in the final stages of global consolidation of corporate control.
While industrialization has brought tremendous economic benefits by reducing cost and increasing the availability of food, it has done so by imposing significant costs on nature and society through environmental degradation and growing social inequity. Public concerns about the American food system have mounted as the ecological and social cost have increased and have become increasingly visible. The emerging public consensus is that an industrial agriculture is simply not sustainable over the long run. Consequently, as the industrialization of food approaches its pinnacle, it is also approaching its end.
Current Status of American Agriculture
The industrialization of food has
been documented extensively in countless statistics and voluminous reports related
to the evolving structure, conduct, and performance of the farming and food
processing, distribution, and retailing sectors of the
The industrialization of the American food system began with food processing, most notably with the meat packing industry in the late 1800s, as documented in The Jungle (Sinclair 1906). The meat packing industry eventually was brought under government control with the Packer and Stockyards Act of 1921. However, government enforcement of all forms of antitrust legislation had fallen out of favor by the 1980s and consolidation of control in meat packing, as well as other sectors of food manufacturing, has gone largely unchecked for the past thirty years. Today, four meat packers control 80% of the beef market (p. 74, Roberts 2008). Virtually every food processing sector of the economy today is also dominated by a few large corporations. As corporations gain positions of economic dominance in one sector, they often use their economic and political power to become dominant players in other sectors, globally as well as nationally.
industrialization of food retailing began with regional supermarket chains
replacing the “mom and pop” grocery stores in the late 1940s. By the 1970s, many
of the smaller regional chains were consolidated into larger national chains.
The consolidation process continued virtually unchecked during the 1980s, and in
the early 1990s, Wal-Mart used its position of dominance as a discount retailer
to broaden its span of control into foods, quickly becoming
A similar process occurred in the “away from home” food market. McDonald’s “golden arches” started displacing local restaurants in the late 1950s. Others, such as Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken (now KFC) quickly followed the McDonald’s franchising model, buoyed economically by housewives moving into the workforce and out of the kitchen. Today, approximately one-half of all dollars spent for food is spent for meals away from home, more than one-half of which is spent for “fast foods.” Many of the different fast food franchises today are owned by far larger food corporations. For example, Yum! Brands Inc. owns Pizza Hut, KFC, Taco Bell, Long John Silver’s, and A&W restaurants. A few large corporations now largely control the away from home food market, nationally and globally.
of agriculture occurred more slowly than other food sectors and only recently has
taken on the classic characteristics of industrialization. The processes of
specialization, standardization, and consolidation of control in agriculture
have been documented extensively in books such as the Unsettling of America (
of new production-enhancing chemical, mechanical, and biological technologies
followed throughout the twentieth century, virtually ensuring periodic
over-production, depressed prices, and farm financial crises. The new technologies
were invariably designed to increase productivity through larger-scale
production, thus each new financial crisis forced thousands of farmers out of
agriculture, making their land available for consolidation into still larger
farms. However, agriculture was among the least well-suited of the sectors to
which the industrial model has been applied. Living biological systems are inherently
holistic, diverse, interdependent, and thus difficult to industrialize. As a
consequence, the economic benefits have been fewer, the ecological and social
costs have been greater, and the process has been slower. Nonetheless, the
number of farms in the
The final phase
of industrialization is vertical consolidation,
which occurs across the various
stages or functional levels of production, including production, processing,
distribution, and retailing. In contrast, horizontal consolidation occurs within the various stages of production. Horizontal
consolidation of the American food system began first in food processing and
then food retailing. It began early but advanced more slowly in farming. The corporations
with the greatest horizontal span of
control were in the strongest position to expand vertically. For example, the
largest food processors were the first to expand into production and
distribution. As early as the 1930s, vegetable processors in the
Famers lack the economic or political power to exert control over the other sectors of the food economy. This leaves farmers largely at the mercy of the large food corporations, both in the marketplace and in contractual negotiations. For several decades, food processors were able to exert considerable influence over food retailers, although they were never able to dominate the supermarket chains. The processors’ power in the retail marketplace came from their ability to establish consumer preferences for “branded products,” such as those advertised and promoted by Kraft, Dole, Campbell’s, Kellogg, Swift, and Coca Cola. If the retailers refused to stock the major food brands they were sure to lose market share to other retailers that did. However, as early as the 1960s, the supermarket chains had begun to develop their own “private labels.” They often contracted with second-tier processors, those with quality products but without dominant brands, to provide the products sold under supermarket labels.
The balance of power began to shift from food processors to food retailers during the 1990s, with the entry of Wal-Mart into food retailing and the actions taken by the other large food retailers to defend their market shares. Today, a few large corporations have an important “shared monopoly” in food retailing. They control all direct access to food consumers, the ultimate source of all economic value in the food system. The dominant food retailers today are so large and powerful that they can easily prevent smaller retailers from succeeding in their respective market areas. Lacking a public mandate to enforce antitrust laws, the government does little if anything to restrain such predatory tactics. Food manufacturers today routinely pay large “slotting fees” to retailers just to get their branded products on retail shelves, where they have to compete with heavily discounted private brands. Many smaller food processors can’t afford the slotting fees and thus are precluded from competing for food customers, even if they have better products and lower costs.
Other large food retailers have begun to follow the Wal-Mart model of using their market power to drive down prices of all products, including the manufacturers’ brands, to their lowest possible level. Some retailers force their suppliers to “open their books” to prove that their products cannot be produced or sold at any lower cost without threatening the economic survival of the supplier. Retailers may suggest alternative means of reducing production costs, such as importing more food products from foreign suppliers. Smaller suppliers may be required to produce exclusively for a given retailer, eliminating the possibility of seeking a higher selling price elsewhere. (Suppliers that can’t meet minimum quantity requirements don’t get a chance to compete on either quality or price.) However, if the retailer finds another supplier with lower costs, current suppliers may be left without a market for their products. Increasingly, this pressure to reduce costs and prices to the lowest possible level is permeating all levels of the food system from the supermarket shelf to the farm.
The span of
corporate control of today’s food system now reaches around the world. Many of
the largest seed companies, agrichemical companies, and food processors have
established joint ventures, strategic alliances, and various contractual
arrangements that effectively consolidate control without consolidating actual
ownerships. Mary Hendrickson and Bill Heffernan of the
Inadequacies of Economic Efficiency
On the surface, lower costs and lower food prices might seem quite logical and even a highly-commendable societal objective. However, economic value is inherently individualistic and self-centered, rather than societal. Economic value must at least be expected to accrue during the lifetime of the individual decision maker or investor. It makes no economic sense to do anything for the sole benefit of someone else and certainly not someone of some future generation. Contrary to popular belief, the “invisible hand” of free markets that Adam Smith suggested would transform the pursuit of self-interests into greater societal good cannot function effectively in today’s capitalist economy. In order for free markets to function for the collective good of society, there must be a large number of buyers and sellers in each market, it must be easy for people to start new businesses and to liquidate existing businesses, buyers and sellers must have accurate information concerning the usefulness of all products, and consumers’ tastes and preferences must be accepted as they exist, without coercive marketing or persuasive advertising. Only under these conditions will free markets provide people with the things they need and want at the lowest possible costs.
None of these
conditions exist in today’s
More important, even if food markets were economically competitive, minimizing costs and maximizing economic efficiency would not ensure the well-being of the American people as a whole or ensure the future of humanity. People are inherently social and ethical beings and economics simply does not value relationships or ethics, at least not in any sense other than their potential contribution to individual self-interests. In addition, all economic value must be extracted from natural or human resources, meaning from either nature or society. While the economy provides strong incentives to use the resources of nature and society for individual purposes, it provides no incentives to do anything for the societal or common good, unless it promises an economic return. In addition, the economy provides no incentives to conserve, protect, or regenerate the resources of nature that will be needed to sustain future generations. If the resources of society and nature are ultimately depleted, there will be no source of future economic value. An economy driven solely by the economic bottom line, by the objectives of productivity and economic efficiency, may be very productive and efficient in the short run, but such an economy quite simply is not sustainable over time (Ikerd 2004). Corporations that seek to maximize economic returns for their stockholders are inevitably driven by the economic bottom line and economies dominated by such corporations are not sustainable. They inevitably degrade, and eventually will deplete, the natural and human resources upon which they ultimately must depend for their productivity.
Emergence of a New Food Economy
about the lack of sustainability of American agriculture has fueled a counter-industrial
food movement dating to the “back to the land” movement of the 1960s. The
“natural foods” movement was begun by the so-called “hippies” who dropped out
of society and formed their own communities or communes. They produced their
own foods using organic farming methods and started local farmers markets to
sell their surplus production to people who shared many of their values but not
their lifestyles. They were concerned primarily with the pesticides and
chemical fertilizers that were becoming commonplace with the industrialization
of American agriculture. The popularity of Rachel Carson’s classic book, Silent Spring (
popularity of natural foods provided the conceptual and economic foundation for
the organic food movement of the 1980s and 1990s, which quickly spread beyond
the farmers markets and natural food cooperatives and eventually into the food
marketing mainstream. The organic foods movement was concerned about far more
than pesticides and fertilizers; it was a rejection of industrial agriculture
in general. Over time, use of animal growth hormones, antibiotics, and
genetically modified organisms and reports of E-coli O157:H7 and “mad cow”
disease added to a growing list of concerns about industrial foods. Concerns
about food quality and nutrition joined concerns for food safety in a nation
suffering from increasing obesity, heart disease, and other diet related
illnesses. Mechanical harvesting, processing, storage, and shelf life had become
more important than freshness, flavor, and nutrition in the geographically-specialized,
mass-production, mass-marketing, industrial food system of the 1970s and 1980s.
Throughout the decade of 1990s, sales of organic foods grew at an annual rate
exceeding 20% per year, doubling every three to four years. Organics was by far
the fastest growing segment of the food market. By the turn of the century Whole
Foods, a natural foods retailer, had
become the fastest growing supermarket chain in the
In 2007, The New Oxford American Dictionary chose “locavore” as their word of the year. A locavore was described as someone who shows a strong preference for foods made with locally grown ingredients and takes advantage of seasonally available foodstuffs that can be bought and prepared without the need for extra preservatives. Locavores clearly have strong preferences for foods very different from the industrial foods found in mainstream supermarkets today.
The local food movement is but the latest phase in the rebellion against industrial foods that began in hippie communes back in the 1960s. With the growth in organic foods, many of most popular organic brands have been purchased by mainstream food corporations. This has put pressure on organic growers to give greater priority to cost of production than to the ecological or social integrity of their processes and products. As they grew larger, organic food retailers came under increasing pressure to adopt the corporate model of minimizing economic costs, even at the cost of society and the environment. Locavores are searching for something more than an industrial version of organic foods. They are searching for, and are willing to pay for, foods that have ecological and social integrity.
The local foods movement is perhaps best characterized by Slow Food, a worldwide organization with more than 80,000 members. The Slow Foods (2008) website states, “We believe that the food we eat should taste good; that it should be produced in a clean way that does not harm the environment, animal welfare or our health; that food producers should receive fair compensation for their work, and that all people should have access to good and clean food.” Slow Food clearly goes beyond food quality, health, and environmental concerns by addressing issues of animal welfare, equitable economic return for food system workers and farmers, and access for all people, regardless of income, to good food. Good, clean, and fair have become the watchwords of the local food movement. Chefs Collaborative is a network of more than 1,000 American chefs who promote the joys of local, seasonal, and artisanal cooking. The Chefs Collaborative (2008) website proclaims, “Cultural and biological diversity are essential for the health of the earth and its inhabitants. Preserving and revitalizing sustainable food, fishing, and agricultural traditions strengthen that diversity.” The natural, organic, and local foods movements all represent a continuing quest by a small, but growing segment of American society for foods that have ecological, social, and economic integrity—foods that are produced sustainably.
Trends Shaping the Future of Agriculture
The powerful forces likely to drive a continuing quest for agriculture sustainability over the decades are readily apparent today. Kelly Cain of the University of Wisconsin-River Falls refers to “peak oil” and global climate change as the “evil twins.” The two are inextricably related by the fact that global warming is a direct consequence of greenhouse gasses released by the use of fossil energy. Meeting the challenges of the “evil twins” ultimately will require fundamental changes in virtually every aspect of life in all industrial nations, including their industrial food systems.
The entire industrial era has been based on cheap and easily accessible energy, first old growth forests, then surface coal, and for most of the past century, relatively shallow deposits of oil. The world is not running out of fossil energy; by most estimates about half of the earth’s total fossil energy reserves are still in the ground. However, all of the easy sources of fossil energy are gone. Forests now have to be grown before they can be harvested. Whole mountains are now being destroyed to gain access to the remaining reserves of coal. The remaining reservoirs of oil and natural gas are deep beneath the floors of deep oceans or in remote areas hardly touched by civilization. All alternative sources of energy – nuclear, wind, water, and photovoltaic – will be more costly to generate and more difficult to use. The industrial era of the past two centuries is coming to an end.
The concept of
“peak oil” refers to the fact that once a new oil field is discovered, it takes
about 30 to 40 years to bring an oil field into peak production (Murphy 2008).
Past records indicate that by the time a field reaches peak production only
about half of the total quantity of recoverable oil remains in the ground. However, the remaining half is more difficult
and costly to retrieve. More wells have to be drilled deeper to pump a given
amount of oil and the oil pressure that once pushed oil toward the surface has
to be replaced with water or steam pressure. Equally important, it is no longer
possible to sustain peak production after the peak has been reached.
All other sources of fossil energy have patterns of discovery, production, and depletion similar to oil, although each has its distinctions. A peak in natural gas production isn’t expected for another couple of decades but the decline in production afterwards is expected to be much more abrupt than for oil. Coal is the most abundant of all fossil energy resources. However, if it is used to make up the shortfalls in oil and natural gas – instead of relying on wind, water, direct solar, and energy conservation – the estimated 200-year supply of recoverable coal could be largely depleted within 50 years.
The greatest limitation of coal is that the remaining reserves of coal will be costly to use, both economically and ecologically. Coal is already a major contributor of greenhouse gasses and the remaining coal reserves not only are less “energy dense” but also “dirtier” and thus pose even greater threats to the environment. An increase in reliance on energy from coal could result in major disruptions on global climate patterns over the next century. While there may be no scientific consensus concerning the causes of global warming, the preponderance of scientific evidence certainly indicates that industrialization has been a major contributor (Gore 2006).
Basic science and simple logic indicates that the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is a direct consequence of the inevitable release of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements from fossil fuels in the process of extracting their stored energy. All fossil energy is biological in origin, solar energy captured in the tissues of biological organisms and stored beneath the earth’s crust. The energy is stored in the bonds that connect molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the major elements forming the tissues of living plants. When fossil energy is released, these bonds are broken and the various chemical elements, including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses, are released into the natural environment. This problem is inherent in all fossil fuels and is certainly not limited to coal. Society cannot replace declining supplies of petroleum by relying on any other sources of fossil energy without exacerbating the risks of global climate change.
Biofuels have been touted as the renewable
replacement for fossil energy. However, biofuels have very limited potential as
a replacement for fossil energy in that all of the energy collected by all of
the green plants in the
The other major
drivers of agricultural sustainability during the twenty-first century will be
social and economic. Until recently, the growing disparity of incomes between
the rich and the poor in the
obvious that these policies have not resulted in a stronger
and social problems relate primarily to the
food safety, nutritional health, fossil energy, global warming, social
inequity, economic instability; these are all ultimately issues of food
security. There is no more important responsibility of any government than food
In the long run,
a nation that cannot feed itself is no more secure than a nation that cannot
defend itself. Furthermore, no nation will be able to confront the ecological,
social, and economic challenges of the future while relying on a specialized,
standardized, corporately controlled, industrial agriculture for its food. The
The End of CAFOs; The Return to Farming with Grass
As the industrialization of the food system approaches its pinnacle, it is also nearing its end. The two might appear to be contradictory but all natural, economic, and social phenomena tend to go through cycles of peaks and valleys. New trends develop whenever it becomes apparent that the old ways of doing things are no longer working. A new trend accelerates as the new ways of doing things are found to be successful in solving problems and realizing opportunities under a variety of circumstances. At some point, the new way of thinking is no longer new and the problems and opportunities that it can address effectively by the once-new thinking process have already been addressed. By then, however, the approach to problem solving has become so commonplace that it is applied routinely, without really thinking, in situations where it is not appropriate. These inappropriate applications begin to create new problems instead of solutions. Regardless, the trend continues toward its pinnacle, driven solely by habit and convention rather than logic and rationality. As benefits decline and costs rise, the trend is ripe for a reversal and new ways of thinking emerge to start a new trend. This is the state of industrial agriculture today. Industrialization has outlived its usefulness and overrun its logical course; it is creating more ecological and social costs than economic benefits. The future belongs to the new way of thinking needed to create a sustainable agriculture.
Concentrated animal feeding operations represent the pinnacle of industrial agriculture. CAFOs specialize in one species of livestock or poultry, often in only one phase of production for one species. The facilities, equipment, breeds, feeds, medications, and procedures are all standardized so they can be mechanized and routinized, like stages on an assembly line. This allows millions of animals to be consolidated under the centralized control of a single corporation. CAFOs are not farms; they are industrial production systems.
CAFOs have been controversial since their inception. They are invariably promoted as a logical rural economic development strategy and the only reasonable means of maintaining a viable local agricultural economy. CAFOs invariably are opposed by some community members because of concerns about noxious odors and pollution of streams and groundwater—which ultimately are health concerns—and about the impacts of CAFOs on the overall quality of life in rural communities. Local public officials are invariably put in the uncomfortable position of trying to decide whether the potential economic benefits of CAFOs are worth the ecological and social costs.
In the early days of CAFOs, the controversy was understandable because previous research related to industrial agriculture had focused on crop farming. However, virtually every study conducted on CAFOs in the past 20 years has confirmed the negative community impacts, similar to those of industrial agriculture. A study commissioned by the North Dakota Attorney General’s Office, for example, reviewed 56 socioeconomic studies concerning the impacts of industrial agriculture on rural communities. It concluded: “Based on the evidence generated by social science research, we conclude that public concern about the detrimental community impacts of industrialized farming is warranted. In brief, this conclusion rests on five decades of government and academic concern with this topic, a concern that has not abetted but that has grown more intense in recent years, as the social and environmental problems associated with large animal confinement operations [CAFOs] have become widely recognized” (italics added) (Stofferahn 2006). In those cases where CAFOs have contributed to local employment or economic activity, they have also contributed to costs of public services and have invariably resulted in greater income inequity and associated social conflicts and instability. Despite arguments to the contrary, the economic promises of CAFOs are largely without scientific support or credibility.
A growing body of scientific evidence has also confirmed the existence of significant human health risks associated with CAFOs. In calling for a nationwide moratorium on CAFOs, the American Public Health Association (2003) cited more than 40 scientific reports indicating health concerns related to CAFOs. A two-year study commissioned by the Pew Charitable Trust (2008) concluded, “The current industrial farm animal production system often poses unacceptable risks to public health, the environment and the welfare of the animals… the negative effects of the system are too great and the scientific evidence is too strong to ignore. Significant changes must be implemented and must start now.” Despite the continuing corporate defense of the industry, the preponderance of scientific evidence leaves little credible doubt that CAFOs represent significant environmental and health risks to people in rural communities.
As additional information about CAFOs becomes public, the ultimate negative public reactions could well place the future of animal agriculture at risk. However, virtually all of the ecological, social, and economic concerns about CAFOs can be addressed effectively by producing animals in smaller, outdoor non-confinement facilities – in a natural environment, free range, on grass. Products from animals on grass can be produced sustainably – ecologically, socially, and economically. Grass farmers can meet the demands of consumers who are concerned about food safety, nutrition, and ethical issues. They can avoid the growth hormones, antibiotics, and genetically engineered organisms, minimize the risks of salmonella and E-coli O157:H7, and eliminate the risk of “mad cow” disease. Grass-fed meat and milk also offer distinct nutrition and health benefits over grain-fed animal products by improving the ratios of healthy to unhealthy fats. From an ethical perspective, it’s far easier to treat animals humanely in pasture-based systems than in concentrated animal feeding operations. In addition, through intensively managed grazing, valuable nutrients are returned to the soil and pollution of surface and groundwater can be kept to a minimum if not eliminated. Grass farming has also eased the transition to organic production for an increasing number of dairy and beef operations. Some grass farmers have joined the local food movement by processing, packaging and marketing their own meat, milk, and animal products directly to local consumers who choose to buy their food from people they know and trust.
In the future, grass farmers will have even greater advantages in addressing the public concerns associated with peak oil, global warming, economic equity, and food security. By keeping the land covered with perennial grasses, grass farmers and ranchers are able to reduce soil erosion and compaction and can maintain the natural productivity of the soil, reducing the need for energy-intensive fertilizers and pesticides. Under current conditions, range cattle require less than one-third as much fossil energy per kcal of animal protein as finished cattle in feedlots, while utilizing grasses and forages that cannot be utilized directly by humans (p. 81, Pimentel and Pimentel 1996). Furthermore, management intensive grazing can significantly increase production per acre over conventional range management while reducing the need for the fossil energy still further (Andrae and Hancock 2008). Grass farmers also have advantages over cattle feeders in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. For example, a 12-ounce beef steak from a grain-fed animal results in about 1.6-pounds of emissions – including emissions from grain production but not transportation (Tisch 2008). The same steak from a grass-fed beef animal results in about 0.3-pounds of CO2, only about one-fifth as much as the grain-fed steak. Ongoing field trials at the Rodale Institute indicate that a shift from conventional to organic farming–with restoration of the organic matter levels needed for healthy, productive organic soils–could sequester significantly more CO2 in the soil than U.S. agriculture currently emits (Sayre 2003).
Energy concerns could accelerate a growing trend toward vegetarianism, which up to now has been motivated largely by religious, ethical, and animal welfare concerns. A shift from a vegetarian diet might reduce fossil energy use and related greenhouse gas emissions by about one-half (p. 146 Pimentel and Pimentel 1996). However, about one-third of the protein consumed by humans globally is of animal origin, more than 60% from animals fed grasses and forages that cannot be consumed by humans (p. 77, Pimentel and Pimentel 1996). Animals are also important to the nutrient cycles and energy flows that characterize healthy, productive natural ecosystems. A shift from grain feeding to grazing would address the energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and animal welfare concerns currently associated with animal agriculture. Such a transition will be essential in meeting the protein needs of a post-industrial society without compromising the ecological integrity needed for long run food security.
Grass farming also provides greater economic and social opportunities for farmers and ranchers and people in rural communities. Most grazing operations are smaller than otherwise similar confinement operations simply because intensively managed grazing systems require hands-on, eyes-on, thinking management, which doesn’t fit well with the corporate contract approach to livestock production. Sustainable grass farming is management intensive, which increases the challenges but also increases the potential economic returns to decision makers on farms and ranches, rather than to managers and investors in the global corporations. Grass farmers have to seek out discriminating customers who value the nutritional and health benefits of grass-fed meat, milk, and cheese. They typically find these customers through farmers markets, community supported agriculture organizations (CSAs), Internet websites, and other marketing methods that are unfamiliar to most farmers. Consumer acceptance of the sensory characteristics of grass-fed animal products also may require unusual animal genetics and unconventional forage and animal management practices. Grass farmers who find ways to meet these challenges can expect to reap and retain the economic rewards, rather than pass their profits on to corporate investors.
Grass-based operations also provide an aesthetically pleasing, safe and supportive environment in which to raise a family, with children taking on increasing responsibilities as they mature. Grass farmers and ranchers work in harmony with nature and need not detract from the quality of the natural ecological environment. They make good neighbors and, unlike CAFOs, can help build stronger local communities, socially as well as economically. For the past several decades, the priority for agriculture has been on productivity and profitability. Sustainable productivity will require a greater emphasis on agricultural ecology, but perhaps even more important, a greater appreciation of farming as a way of life.
The opportunities for grass farming will be virtually unlimited, as people seek ways to confront the ecological, social, and economic challenges of the future. The physical health and happiness of people, the viability of economies, and the very future of humanity ultimately depend on the sustainability of agriculture. Animal agriculture will be essential in meeting the food security needs of a growing global society in the post-industrial era of global warming, fossil energy depletion, and a commitment to greater social equity. Farming with grass has distinct advantages over confinement animal feeding in meeting the ecological, social, and economic challenges of the future – locally, nationally, and globally.
American Public Health Association. 2003. Association News, Policy Statement Database. Accessed at: http://www.apha.org/advocacy/policy/policysearch/default.htm?id=1243. Verified: 18 August 2008.
Andrae, J., and D. Hancock. 2008. An introduction to management-intensive grazing: What can MIG do for my farm?
Berry, W. 1977. The Unsettling of
Blatt, J. 2008.
Brett, P.D., S.W. Johnson, and C.R.T. Back. 1989. Mastering
Chefs Collaborative. 2008. Chefs Collaborative:
Gore, A. 2006. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What
We Can Do About It.
Greenspan, A. 2005. Quoted in: Rich-poor gap gaining attention, Christian Science Monitor, 14 June 2005. Accessed at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0614/p01s03-usec.html. Verified: 26 August 2008.
Hendrickson, M., and W. Heffernan. 2002. Opening spaces through relocalization: Locating potential resistance in the weaknesses of the global food system. Sociologia Ruralis 42(4): 347-369.
Horne, J., and M. McDermott. 2001. The Next Green Revolution.
Ikerd, J.E. 2005. Sustainable Capitalism: A Matter of Common Sense.
Ikerd, J.E. 2008. Crisis and
MacDonald, J., and P. Korb. 2008. Agricultural Contracting Update, 2005. ERS
Murphy, P. 2008. Plan C: Community Survival Strategies
for Peak Oil and Climate Change.
Norberg-Hodge, H., T. Merrifield,
and S. Gorelick. 2002. Bringing the
Food Economy Home: Local Alternatives to Global Agribusiness.
Pew Charitable Trust. 2008. Putting
meat on the table: Industrial farm animal production in
Pimentel, D., and M. Pimentel. 1996. Food, Energy, and Society.
Pimentel, D., P. Hepperly, J. Hanson, D. Douds, and R. Seidel. 2005. Environmental, energetic, and economic comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems. BioScience 55(7):573–582.
Pollan, M. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural
History of Four Meals.
Roberts, P. 2008. The End of Food.
Sayre, L. 2003. The New Farm field trials. The Rodale Institute. Accessed at: http://www.newfarm.org/depts/NFfield_trials/1003/carbonsequest.shtml.Verified: 26 August 2008.
Schlooser, E. 2001. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American
Sinclair, U. 1906. The Jungle.
Slow Foods International. 2008. Slow Food: Our Philosophy. Accessed at: http://www.slowfood.com/about_us/eng/philosophy.lasso. Verified: 18 August 2008.
Stofferahn, C. 2006. Industrialized farming and its relationship to community well-being: An update of the 2000 report by Linda Labao, Special Report, North Dakota Office of Attorney General. Accessed at: http://www.und.edu/org/ndrural/Lobao%20&%20Stofferahn.pdf. Verified: 18 August 2008.
Tisch, D. 2008. Interview with Bruce Gellerman, “Living on Earth”, 8 February 2008. Accessed at: http://www.loe.org/shows/shows.htm?programID=08-P13-00006#feature4. Verified: 18 August 2008.