World Database of Trust
Updated November 2010
Welcome to the World Database of Trust!
In compiling research on trust, I have divided it into theoretical, empirical, and other designations. These designations are only approximate. Some empirical studies will make a theoretical contribution, and some theoretical papers contain empirical results. Nevertheless, I have made every effort to fit the papers and books as closely as possible to the main theoretical or empirical contribution of the work.
If you have any comments, suggestions for improvement, or know of papers or books that should be listed here, please e-mail me at email@example.com.
Definitions of Trust
“Trust … is reliance on another's good will … Where one depends on another's good will, one is necessarily vulnerable to the limits of that good will. One leaves others an opportunity to harm one when one trusts, and also shows one's confidence that they will not take it. Reasonable trust will require good grounds for such confidence in another's good will, or at least the absence of good grounds for expecting their ill will or indifference. Trust then … is accepted vulnerability to another's possible but not expected ill will (or lack of good will) toward one.”
“Trust … is letting other persons (natural or artificial, such as firms, nations, etc.) take care of something the trustor cares about, where such 'caring for' involves some exercise of discretionary powers.”
- A. Baier, “Trust and Antitrust,” Ethics, 96, 1986, pp. 234, 235, 240
Trust “is the mutual confidence that one's vulnerability will not be exploited in an exchange.”
- J.B. Barney and M.H. Hansen, “Trustworthiness as a Source of Competitive Advantage,” Strategic Management Journal, 15 (Winter Special Issue), 1994, p. 177
“Trust is an expectation that alleviates the fear that one's exchange partner will act opportunistically.”
- J.L. Bradach and R.G. Eccles, “Markets versus Hierarchies: From Ideal Types of Plural Forms,” in W.R. Scott (ed.), Annual Review of Sociology, 15, 1989, p. 104
“Trust is the expectation that arises within a community of regular, honest, and cooperative behavior, based on commonly shared norms, on the part of other members of that community.”
- F. Fukuyama, Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity,
“Trust (or, symmetrically, distrust) is a particular level of the subjective probability with which an agent assesses that another agent or group of agents will perform a particular action, both before he can monitor such an action (or independently of his capacity ever to be able to monitor it) and in a context in which it affects his own action.”
- D. Gambetta,
“Can We trust Trust?” in D. Gambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative
“Trust is the reliance by one person, group, or firm upon a voluntarily accepted duty on the part of another person, group, or firm to recognize and protect the rights and interests of all others engaged in a joint endeavor or economic exchange.”
Trust is “the expectation … of ethically justifiable behavior – that is, morally correct decisions and actions based upon ethical principles of analysis.”
- L.T. Hosmer,
“Trust: The Connecting Link Between Organizational Theory and Philosophical
“In the language of economics, trust can be viewed as an expectation, and it pertains to circumstances in which agents take risky actions in environments characterized by uncertainty or informational incompleteness. To say 'A trusts B' means that A expects B will not exploit a vulnerability A has created for himself by taking the action.”
- H.S. James, Jr., “The Trust Paradox: A Survey of Economic Inquiries into the Nature of Trust and Trustworthiness,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 47(3), 2002, p. 291
“Trust can be defined as the belief or perception by one party (e.g. a principal) that the other party (e.g. an agent) to a particular transaction will not cheat, where the payoff structure internal to the transaction can be characterized by a prisoner’s dilemma or principal-agent game.”
- S. Knack,
“Trust, Associational Life and Economic Performance,” J.F. Helliwell
(ed.), The Contribution of Human and
Social Capital to Sustained Economic Growth and Well-being,
Trust is the “undertaking of a risky course of action on the confident expectation that all persons involved in the action will act competently and dutifully.”
- J.D. Lewis and A. Weigert, “Trust as a Social Reality,” Social Forces, 63, 1985, 971
“Trust can be defined as the judgement one makes on the basis of one's past interactions with others that they will seek to act in ways that favor one's interests, rather than harm them, in circumstances that remain to be defined. Trusting judgements inevitably remain tentative, rather than certain, since they are based on a limited knowledge of others rather than a precise calculation of their interests.”
- E. Lorenz, “Trust, Contract and Economic
Trust “is the perceived likelihood of the other not behaving in a self-interested manner.”
- A. Madhok, “Revisiting Multinational Firms' Tolerance for Joint Ventures: A Trust-based Approach,” Journal of International Business Studies, 26(1), 1995, p. 120
Trust is “the willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other will perform a particular action important to the trustor.”
- R.C. Mayer, J.H. Davis, and F.D. Schoorman, “An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust,”
Trust is “the extent to which a person is confident in, and willing to act on the basis of, the words, actions, and decisions of another.”
- D.J. McAllister, “Affect- and Cognition-based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal cooperation in organizations,” Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1995, p. 25
“Trust in things or people entails the willingness to submit to the risk that they may fail us, with the expectation that they will not, or the neglect or lack of awareness of the possibility that they might.”
“'Real' trust, or trust in the strong sense, is an expectation that things or people will not fail us, or the neglect of lack of awareness of the possibility of failure, even if there are perceived opportunities and incentives for it.”
- B. Nooteboom, Trust: Forms, Foundations, Functions,
Failures and Figures,
Trust broadly defined is “the expectation that a partner will not engage in opportunistic behavior, for whatever reason, including control of his conduct.”
Trust more narrowly defined is “the expectation that a partner will not engage in opportunistic behavior, even in the face of short-term opportunities and incentives, in the absence of control.”
- B. Nooteboom, “Social Capital, Institutions and Trust,” Review of Social Economy, 65(1), 2007, p. 37.
“Trust is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behavior of another.”
- D.M. Rousseau, S.B. Sitkin, R.s. Burt, and C. Camerer, “Not So Different After All: A Cross-discipline View of Trust,” Academy of Management Review, 23, 1998, p. 395.
Trust is a person's “expectations, assumptions, or beliefs about the likelihood that another's future actions will be beneficial, favorable, or at least not detrimental to one's interests.”
- S.L. Robinson, “Trust and Breach of the Psychological Contract,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 1996, p. 576
“Trust is a state of mind, an expectation held by one trading partner about another, that the other behaves or responds in a predictable and mutually expected manner.”
- M. Sako, Prices, Quality, and Trust: Inter-firm
Trust “may be defined as a reliance upon information received from another person about uncertain environmental states and their accompanying outcomes in a risky situation.”
- B.R. Schlenker, B. Helm, and J.T. Tedeschi, “The Effects of Personality and Situational Variables on Behavioral Trust,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 1973, p. 419
Trust is a “belief, attitude, or expectation concerning the likelihood that the actions or outcomes of another individual, group or organization will be acceptable or will serve the actor’s interests.”
Trust is the “belief in a person's competence to perform a specific task under specific circumstances.”
- S.B. Sitkin and N.L. Roth, “Explaining the Limited Effectiveness of Legalistic 'Remedies' for Trust/Distrust,” Organization Science, 4, 1993, p. 368, 373
Trust is “a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability to the actions of another party based upon the expectation that the other will perform a particular action that is important to you.”
- F. Six, B. Nooteboom, and A. Hoogendoorn, “Actions that Build Interpersonal Trust: A Relational Signalling Perspective,” Review of Social Economy, 68(3), 2010, pp. 289-290.
“Trust is the willingness to permit the decisions of others to influence your welfare.”
- J. Sobel, “Can We Trust Social Capital,” Journal of Economic Literature, 40(March), 2002, p. 148.
“When we trust other people, we expect that they will fulfill their promises, either because we know that they have usually done so in the past … or because we believe that we shall fare better if we presume that others are trustworthy.”
- E.M. Uslaner, The Moral Foundations of Trust,
“From a sociological perspective, trust is defined as a set of expectations shared by all those involved in an exchange.”
- L.G. Zucker, “Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure, 1840-1920,” Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 1986, p. 54
Books on Trust
Axelrod, Robert, The Evolution of Cooperation,
Barber, Bernard, The Logic and Limits
Braithwaite, Valerie, and Margaret Levi, (eds.), Trust and Governance,
Casson, Mark, Studies in the Economics of Trust,
Cook, Karen S. (ed.), Trust in Society,
Gambetta, Diego (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations,
Govier, Trudy, Social Trust and Human Communities, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997.
Govier, Trudy, Dilemmas of Trust, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1999.
Hardin, Russell, Trust and Trustworthiness,
Hardin, Russell (ed.), Distrust,
Hardin, Russell, Trust, Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2006.
Kramer, Roderick M., and Karen S. Cook (eds.), Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches,
Misztal, Barbara, Trust in Modern Societies: The Search for the Bases of Social Order, Polity Press, 1995.
Nooteboom, Bart, Trust: Forms, Foundations,
Functions, Failures and Figures,
O’Neill, Onora, A Question of Trust: The BBC Reith Lectures 2002. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Ostrom, Elinor, and
James Walker, (eds.), Trust and Reciprocity,
Ridley, Matt, The Origins of Virtue: Human Instincts and the Evolution of
Seligman, Adam, The Problem of Trust, Princeton University Press, 2000.
Sztompka, Piotr, Trust: A Sociological Theory, Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Uslaner, Eric M., The Moral Foundations of
Surveys, Overviews, General Discussions
Baier, A., “Trust and Antitrust,” Ethics, 96(January), 1986, 231-260.
Barney, J.B., and M.H. Hansen, “Trustworthiness as a Source of Comparative Advantage,” Strategic Management Journal, 15(Winter), 1994, 175-190.
Das, T.K., and Teng, Bing-Sheng, “The Risk-based View of Trust: A Conceptual Framework,” Journal of Business and Psychology, 19(1), 2004, 85-116.
Dasgupta, P., “Trust as a Commodity,” in D.
Gambetta (ed.) Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations,
Gambetta, D., “Can We Trust in Trust?” in D. Gambetta (ed.) Trust: Making
and Breaking Cooperative Relations,
Hardin, R., “The Street-Level Epistemology of Trust,” Politics & Society, 21(4), 1993, 505-529.
Hardin, R., “Trustworthiness,” Ethics, 107(1), 1996, 26-42.
Hardin, R., “Conceptions and Explanations of Trust,” in K.S. Cook (ed.), Trust
Hardin, R., “Distrust: Manifestations and Management,” in R. Hardin (ed.), Distrust,
James, H.S., Jr., “The Trust Paradox: A Survey of Economic Inquiries into the Nature of Trust and Trustworthiness,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 47(3), 2002, 291-307.
Koehn, D., “Should We Trust in Trust?” American Business Law Journal, 34(2), 1996, 183-203. See also Fort, Timothy L., “Trust and Law's Facilitating Role,” American Business Law Journal, 34(2), 1996, 205-215.
Lahno, Bernd, “On the Emotional Character of Trust,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 4, 2001, 171-189.
Leibenstein, H., “On Some Economic Aspects of a
Fragile Input: Trust,” in G.R. Feiwel (ed.), Arrow
and the Foundations of the Theory of Economic Policy,
Levi, M., “When Good Defenses Make Good Neighbors: A Transaction Cost
Approach to Trust, the Absence of Trust and Distrust,” in C. Menard, (ed.) Institutions,
Contracts and Organizations: Perspectives from New Institutional Economics,
Nooteboom, B. “Social Capital, Institutions and Trust,” Review of Social Economy, 65(1), 2007, 29-53.
Perelman, M., “The Neglected Economics of Trust: The Bentham Paradox and Its Implications,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 57(4), 1998, 381-389.
Sitkin, S.B., and N.L. Roth, “Explaining the Limited Effectiveness of Legalistic 'Remedies' for Trust/Distrust,” Organization Science, 4, 1993, 367-392.
Williamson, O.E., “Calculativeness, Trust, and Economic Organization,” Journal of Law and Economics, 36, 1993, 453-486. See also Craswell, Richard, “On the Uses of 'Trust': Comment on Williamson, 'Calculativeness, Trust, and Economic Organization,'“ Journal of Law and Economics, 36(April), 1993, 487-500.
Bhattacharya, R., T.M. Devinney, and M.M. Pillutla, “A Formal Model of Trust Based on Outcomes,”
Coleman, J.S., “Relations of Trust,” in Foundations of Social Theory,
Colombo, F., and G. Merzoni, “In Praise of Rigidity: The Bright Side of Long-term Contracts in Repeated Trust Games,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 59(3), 2006, 349-373.
Güth, W., and H. Kliemt, “Competition or Co-operation: On the Evolutionary Economics of Trust, Exploration and Moral Attitudes,” Metroeconomica, 45(2), 1994, 155-187.
Huang, P.H., and H. Wu, “More Order without More Law: A Theory of Social Norms and Organizational Cultures,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 10(2), 1994, 390-406.
Huck, S., “Trust, Treason, and Trials: An Example of How the Evolution of Preferences Can Be Driven by Legal Institutions,” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 14(1), 1998, 44-60.
Hwang, P., and W.P. Burgers, “Properties of Trust: An Analytical View,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69(1), 1997, 67-73.
James, H.S., Jr., “On the Reliability of Trusting,” Rationality and Society, 14(2), 2002, 159-186.
Kreps, D.M., “Corporate Culture and Economic Theory,” in J. Alt and K. Shepsle (eds.), Perspectives in Positive Political
Lahno, B., “Trust and Strategic Rationality,” Rationality and Society, 7(4), 1995, 442-464.
Snijders, C., and G. Keren, “Determinants of Trust,” in D.V. Budescu, I. Erev, and R. Zwickm (eds.), Games and Human Behavior: Essays in Honor of Amnon Rapaport, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999, 355-385.
Weber, J.M., D. Malhotra, and J.K. Murnighan, “Normal Acts of Irrational Trust: Motivated Attributions and the Trust Development Process,” Research in Organizational Behavior, 26, 2005, 75-101.
Markets, Institutions and Society
Aulakh, P.S., M. Kotabe, and A. Sahay, “Trust and Performance in Cross-border Marketing Partnerships: A Behavioral Approach,” Journal of International Business Studies, 27(5), 1996, 1005-1032.
Bjørnskov, C., “The Happy Few. Cross-Country Evidence on Social Capital and Life Satisfaction,” Kyklos, 56, 2003, 3-16
Bjørnskov, C., “Determinants of Generalized Trust. A Cross-Country Comparison,” Public Choice, 130(1-2), 2006, 1-21.
Blair, M.M., and
Doney, P.M., and J.P. Cannon, “An Examination of the Nature of Trust in Buyer-Supplier Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 61(2), 1997, 35-51.
Gefen D., “E-Commerce: The Role of Familiarity and Trust”, Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, 28(6), 2000, 725-737.
Gefen, D. “Nurturing Clients’ Trust to Encourage Engagement Success During the Customization of ERP Systems,” Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, 30(4), 2002, 287-299.
Gefen, D., “What Makes ERP Implementation Relationships Worthwhile: Linking Trust Mechanisms and ERP Usefulness,” Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(1), 2004, 275-301.
Hwang, P., “Asset Specificity and the Fear of Exploitation,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 60(3), 2006, 423-438.
Lorenz, E., “Trust, Contract and Economic Cooperation,”
Moorman, C., R. Deshpande, and G. Zaltman, “Factors Affecting Trust in Market Research Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1993, 81-101.
Pavlou, P.A. and Gefen, D., “Building Effective Online Marketplaces with Institution-Based Trust,” Information Systems Research, 15(1), 2004, 37-59.
Pavlou, P.A., and Gefen D., “Psychological Contract Violation in Online Marketplaces: Antecedents, Consequences, and Moderating Role,” Information Systems Research, 16(4), 2005, 372-399.
Rose-Ackerman, S., “Trust, Honesty, and Corruption: Reflection on the State-Building Process,” European Journal of Sociology, 42, 2001, 27-71.
Shapiro, S.P., “The Social Control of Impersonal Trust,” American Journal of Sociology, 93(3), 1987, 623-658.
Zak, P., and S. Knack, “Trust and Growth,” The Economic Journal, 111, 2001, 295-321.
Zak, P., and S. Knack, “Building Trust: Public Policy, Interpersonal Trust, and Economic Development,” Supreme Court Economic Review, 10, 2002.
Zucker, L.G., “Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure, 1840-1920,” Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, 1986, 53-111.
Beccerra, M., A.K. Gupta, “Trust Within Organization: Integrating the Trust Literature with Agency Theory and Transaction Cost Economics,” Public Administration Quarterly, 23(2), 1999, 177-203.
Creed, W.E.D., and R.E. Miles, “Trust in Organizations: A Conceptual
Framework Linking Organizational Forms, Managerial Philosophies, and the
Opportunity Costs of Controls,” in R.M. Kramer and T.R. Tyler (eds.), Trust
in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research,
Dirks, K.T., and D.L. Ferrin, “The Role of Trust in Organizational Settings,” Organizational Science, 12(4), 2001, 450-467.
Grey, C., and C. Garsten, “Trust, Control and Post-bureaucracy,” Organization Studies, 22(2), 2001, 229-250.
Hall, MA, E. Dugan, B. Zheng, and A. Mishra, “Trust in Physicians and Medical Institutions: What is it?, Can it be measured? and Does it matter?” The Milbank Quarterly, 79(4), 2001, 613-639.
Hansen, M.H., J.L. Morrow Jr., and J.C. Batista, “The Impact of Trust on Cooperative Membership Retention, Performance, and Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study,” International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 5, 2002, 41-59.
James, H.S., Jr., and M. Sykuta, “Property Right and Organizational Characteristics of Producer-owned Firms and Organizational Trust,” Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 76(4), 2005, 545-580.
James, H.S., Jr., and M. Sykuta, “Farmer Trust in Producer- and Investor-owned Firms: Evidence from Missouri Corn and Soybean Producers,” Agribusiness: An International Journal, 22(1), 2006, 135-153.
Kramer, R.M., “Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives, Enduring Questions,” Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 1999, 569-598.
La Porta, R., F. Lopez-de-Silanes, A. Shleifer, and R.W. Vishny, “Trust in Large Organizations,” American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 87(2), 1997, 333-338.
Mayer, R.C., J.H. Davis, and F.D. Schoorman, “An
Integrative Model of Organizational Trust,”
Miller, G., “Why is Trust Necessary in Organizations? The Moral Hazard of
Profit Maximization,” in K.S. Cook (ed.), Trust in Society,
Morrow, J.L., Jr., M.H. Hansen, and A.W. Pearson, “The Cognitive and Affective Antecedents of General Trust Within Cooperative Organizations,” Journal of Managerial Issues, 16(1), 2001, 48-64.
Nooteboom, B., “Trust, Opportunism and Governance: A Process and Control Model,” Organization Studies, 17(6), 1996, 985-1010.
Nooteboom, B., H. Berger, and N. Noorderhaven, “Effects of Trust and Governance on Relational Risk,” Academy of Management Journal, 40(2), 1997, 308-338.
Ole Borgen, S., “Identification as a Trust-Generating Mechanism in Cooperatives,” Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 72(2), 2001, 209-228.
Six, F., B. Nooteboom, and A. Hoogendoorn, “Actions that Build Interpersonal Trust: A Relational Signalling Perspective,” Review of Social Economy, 68(3), 2010, 285-315.
Wicks, A.C., S.L. Berman, T.M. Jones, “The Structure of Optimal Trust: Moral
and Strategic Implications,”
Zaheer, A., B. McEvily, and V. Perrone, “Does Trust Matter? Exploring the Effects of Interorganizational and Interpersonal Trust on Performance,” Organization Science, 9(2), 1998, 141-159.
General Empirical Studies
Alesina, A., and E. La Ferrara, “The Determinants of Trust,” NBER working paper 7621, 2000. Available on the Internet at http://www.nber.org/papers/w7621.
Bjørnskov, C., “The Multiple Facets of Social Capital,” European Journal of Political Economy, 22(1), 2006, 22-40.
Glaeser, E., D. Laibson, J. Scheinkman, and Christine Soutter, “Measuring Trust,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 2000, 811-846.
Ahmed, A.M., and O. Salas, “The Relationship Between Behavioral and Attitudinal Trust: A Cross-cultural Study,” Review of Social Economy, 67(4), 2010, 457-482.
Berg, J., J. Dickhaut, and K. McCabe, “Trust, Reciprocity, and Social History,” Games and Economic Behavior, 10(1), 1995, 122-142.
Buchan, N.R., and R.T.A. Croson, “The Boundaries
of Trust: Own and Others' Actions in the
Buchan, N.R., E.J. Johnson, and R.T.A. Croson, “Let’s Get Personal: An International Examination of the Influence of Communication, Culture and Social Distance on Other Regarding Preferences,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 60(3), 2006, 373-398.
Carpenter, J.P., A.G. Daniere, and L.M. Takahashi, “Cooperation, Trust, and Social Capital in Southeast Asian Urban Slums,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(4), 2004, 533-551.
Chaudhuri, A., S.A. Khan, A. Lakshmiratan, A Py, and L. Shah, “Trust and Trustworthiness in a Sequential Bargaining Game,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 16(5), 2003, 311-340.
De Cremer, D., “Trust and Fear of Exploitation in a Public Goods Dilemma,” Current Psychology, 18(2), 1999, 153-163.
Eckel, C.C., and R.K. Wilson, “Is Trust a Risky Decision?” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(4), 2004, 447-465.
Engle-Warnick, J., and R.L. Slonim, “The Evolution of Strategies in a Repeated Trust Game,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(4), 2004, 553-573.
Gächter, S., B. Herrmann, and C. Thöni, “Trust, Voluntary Cooperation, and Socio-economic Background: Survey and Experiment Evidence,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(4), 2004, 505-531.
Gefen D. and Straub, D.W., “Consumer Trust in B2C e-Commerce and the Importance of Social Presence: Experiments in e-Products and e-Services,” Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, 32(6), 2004, 407-424.
Henrich, J., “Does Culture Matter in Economic Behavior? Ultimatum Game Bargaining Among the Machiguenga of the Peruvian Amazon,” American Economic Review, 90(4), 2000, 973-979.
Holm, H.J., and A. Danielson, “Tropic Trust versus Nordic Trust: Experimental Evidence from Tanzania and Sweden,” Economic Journal, 115(503), 2005, 505-532.
Holm, H.J., and P. Nystedt, “Intra-generational Trust—A Semin-experimental Study of Trust Among Difference Generations,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 58(3), 2005, 403-419.
Malhotra, D., and J.K. Murnighan, “The Effects of Contracts on Interpersonal Trust,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 2002, 534-559.
Parks, C.D., and L.G. Hulbert, “High and Low Trusters' Responses to Fear in a Payoff Matrix,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 39(4), 1995, 718-731.
Renner, E., and J.R. Tyran, “Price Rigidity in Customer Markets,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(4), 2004, 575-593.
Tullock, G., “Non-prisoner's Dilemma,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 39, 1999, 455-458.
Yuki, M., W.W. Maddux, M.B. Brewer, and K. Takemura, “Cross-Cultural Differences in Relationship- and Group-Based Trust,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(1), 2005, 48-62.
Trust and Risk Communication
Hunt, S., and Lynn J. Frewer, “Trust in Sources of
Information About Genetically Modified Food Risks in the
James, H.S., Jr., “The Effect of Trust on Public Support for Biotechnology: Evidence from the U.S. Biotechnology Study, 1997-1998,” Agribusiness: An International Journal, 19(2), 2003, 155-168
James, H.S., Jr., “Trust in Scientists and Food Manufacturers: Implications for the Public Support of Biotechnology,” Journal of Agribusiness, 24(2), 2006, 119-133
Kasperson, R.E., D. Golding, and S. Tuler, “Social Distrust as a Factor in Siting Hazardous Facilities and Communicating Risks,” Journal of Social Issues, 48(4), 1992, 161-187.
Lang, J.T, K.M. O'Neill, and W.K. Hallman, “Expertise, Trust, and Communication about Food Biotechnology,” AgBioForum, 6(4), 2004, Article 6.
Peters, R.G., V.T. Covello, and D.B. McCallum, “The Determinants of Trust and Credibility in Environmental Risk Communication: An Empirical Study,” Risk Analysis, 17(1), 1997, 43-54.
Renn, O., and D. Levine, “Credibility and Trust in
Risk Communication,” in R.E. Kasperson and P.J.M. Stallen (eds.) Communicating Risks to the Public,
Siegrist, M., “The Influence of Trust and Perceptions of Risks and Benefits on the Acceptance of Gene Technology,” Risk Analysis, 20(2), 2000, 195-203.
Sjöberg, L., “Limits of Knowledge and the Limited Importance of Trust,” Risk Analysis, 21(1), 2001, 189-198.
Slovic, P., “Perceived Risk, Trust, and Democracy,” Risk Analysis, 13(6), 1993, 675-682.
Williams, B.L., S. Brown, and Michael Greenberg, “Determinants of Trust
Perceptions Among Residents Surrounding the
Social Psychology of Trust
Deutsch, M., “Trust, Trustworthiness, and the F-scale,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61, 1960, 138-140.
Gurtman, M.B., “Trust, Distrust, and Interpersonal Problems: A Circumplex Analysis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1992, 989-1002.
Orbell, M., R. Dawes, and P. Schwartz-Shea, “Trust, Social Categories, and Individuals: The Case of Gender,” Motivation and Emotion, 18, 1994, 109-128.
Quigley-Fernandez, B., F.S. Malkis, and J.T. Tedeschi, “Effects of First Impressions and Reliability of Promises on Trust and Cooperation,” British Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 1985, 29-36.
Sorrentino, R.M., J.G. Holmes, S.E. Hanna, and A. Sharp, “Uncertainty Orientation and Trust in Close Relationships: Individual Differences in Cognitive Styles,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 1995, 314-327.
Neurobiology and Trust
Fehr, E., U. Fischbacher, and M. Kosfeld, “Neuroeconomic Foundations of Trust and Social Preferences,” Institute for the Study of Labor discussion paper no. 1641, June 2005.
King-Casas, B., D. Tomlin, C. Anen, C.F. Camerer, S.R. Quartz, P.R. Montague, “Getting to Know You: Reputation and Trust in a Two-Perons Economic Exchange,” Science, 308, 2005, 78-83.
Kosfeld, M., M. Heinrichs,
P. zak, U. Fischbacher, and
Zak, P.J. “Trust: A Temporary Human Attachment Facilitated by Oxytocin,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, forthcoming.