(AU):Ø-ing is right if and only if Ø-ing is optimific.

(RU1):Ø-ing is right if and only if Ø-ing is in accordance with a set of rules conformity to which is optimific.

(RU2): Ø-ing is right if and only if Ø-ing is in accordance with a set of rulesgeneralconformity to which is optimific.

1. Ø is right if and only if Ø treats everyone as equals.

2. Ø treats everyone as equals if and only if Ø takes into account everyone's preferences equally.

3. Ø takes into account everyone's preferences equally if and only if Ø maximizes overall utility.Therefore,

4. Ø is right if and only if Ø maximizes overall utility.

1'. Ø is right if and only if Ø maximizes utility.

2'. Ø maximizes utility if and only if Ø takes everyone's preferences into account equally.

3'. Ø takes everyone's preferences into account equally if and only if Ø treats people as equals.Therefore,

4'. Ø is right if and only if Ø treats people as equals.

1. Y is the good if and only if Y is desirable as an end in itself.

2. Only pleasure is desirable as an end in itself.

3. Therefore, only pleasure is Y.

© Robert N. Johnson, 1996

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