Galen J. Suppes
Truman S. Storvick
The History of Energy
FIGURE 2-2. Year 2005 petroluem flow in millions of barrels per day. (U.S. DOE Public Domain Image. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/diagram2.html, also available at .)
1. B. P. Tissot and D. H. Welte, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1978, p. 5.
5. Anthony Sampson, The Seven Sisters. New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1981, p. 27.
6. http://www.runet.edu/¡«wkovarik/envhist/7forties.html, May 20, 2002.
7. Stevenson, William, 1976, A Man Called Intrepid, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
8. Borkin, Joseph, 1978. The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben. New York: Free Press Source for Fig. 2-4 http://www.eia.doe.gov/ emeu/mer/, May 17, 2002.
9. Also see http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/reserves.xls.
10. Consumption at 7.1e16Btu/yr in U.S. and oil, coal, and gas reserves of 5.3e18, 2.5e19, and 6.9e19. World consumption of 1.46e17, 1.18e17, and 1.4e18 for total of 1.4e18 ¨ use 1.5e18 for world. From http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table11.xls.
11. http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/quickfacts/quickoil.html, May 17, 2002.
12. Grove, 1995.
13. Perlin, 1991.
14. http://www.radford.edu/¡«wkovarik/envhist/, May 19, 2002.
15. Noel De Nevers, Air Pollution Control Engineering. New York: McGraw Hill, 1995, p. 2.
17. Changes in Gasoline III, published by Technicians Manual, Downstream Alternatives, Inc. P.O. Box 190, Bremen, IN 46506-0190, 1996, p. 8.
18. http://www.runet.edu/¡«wkovarik/envhist/10eighties.html, May 20, 2002.
19. R. A. Hinrichs, and M. Kleinbach, EnergyIts Use and the Environment, 3rd ed. New York: Brooks/Cole, 2002, Table 14.6.
Energy Reserves and
Renewable Energy Sources
4. ibid. AZ.
5. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980, Vol. 12, p. 326.
6. From U.S. DOE Public Domain. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/ petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/Supply_ Petroleum_Trap.htm, 2003.
7. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980, Vol. 12, p. 326.
8. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977, Vol. 11, p. 326.
9. S. M. Forouq Ali, Heavy Crude Oil Recovery, Ender Okandan, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publisher, 1984, p. 50.
10. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980, Vol. 11, p. 887.
13. Canadas Oil Sands and Heavy Oil. Petroleum Communication Foundation, Canadian Centre for Energy Information, Alberta. see http://www.centreforenergy.com/EE-OS.asp.
14. Evolution of Canadas oil gas industry. Canadian Centre for Energy Information, Alberta, Canada, 2004. see http://www.centreforenergy.
16. Mielke, J.E. Methane Hydrates: Energy Prospect or Natural Hazard? CRS Report to Congress. Order Code RS20050, February 14, 2000.
17. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980, Vol. 12, p. 326.
Elsevier US 0ssn03 5-7-2006 5:43p.m. Page No:73 Energy Reserves and Renewable Energy Sources 73 18. http://www.eia.doe.gov/fueloverview.html.
19. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/procyc.html, May 15, 2002.
20. http://zebu.uoregon.edu/textbook/energygen.html, May 15, 2002.
21. http://www.lbl.gov/Publications/Currents/Archive/ Nov-19-1999.html 22. Images provided by the Uranium Information Center, Ltd., GPO Box 1649N, Melbourne 3001, Australia.
24. Images provided by the Uranium Information Center, Ltd., GPO Box 1649N, Melbourne 3001, Australia.
25. http://www.upei.ca/¡«physics/p261/projects/geothermal1/ geothermal1.htm.
27. http://www.radford.edu/¡«wkovarik/envhist/ 28. http://www.californiasolarcenter.org/history_solarthermal.html.
32. Conversation with Idaho Powers representatives at Bioenergy02, Boise, Idaho, September 2002.
34. R. M. Tshiteya, Conversion Technologies, pp. 321.
35. Lester B. Lave, W. M. Griffin, and H. Maclean, The Ethanol Answer to Carbon Emissions, Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 20012002, pp. 7378.
36. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/, 8.36 million barrels per day consumed.
37. Lester B. Lave, et al., p. 75.
38. K. Shaine Tyson, et al.
39. M. Bockish, Fats and Oils Handbook. Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists Society Press, 1993, p. 11. 20MMt of soybean oil, SBO at 21% of oil crops, oil crops at 80% of fat and oil.
40. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_ publications/oil_market_basics/default.htm. 19.48 million barrels per day or 7110.2 million barrels per year.
41. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/. 3.7 million barrels per day or 1.35 billion barrels per year.
42. Peterson, C. L. and D. L. Auld Technical Overview of Vegetable Oil as a Transportation Fuel. FACT-Vol. 12, Solid Fuel Conversion for the Transportation Sector, ASME 1991. Page 45, Found at biodiesel.org.
43. Soy Stats 2004. American Soybean Association, 12125 Woodcrest Executive Drive, Suite 100, Saint Louis, MO 63141.
45. 26 U.S.C. 40.
Technologies and Policies
1. W. D. Seider, J. D. Seader, and D. R. Lewin, Process Design Principles.
New York: Wiley, 1998, p. 47.
2. Debora Hairston, Newsfront: Pyrolysis Gets All Fired Up. Chemical Engineering, March 2002.
3. G. J. Suppes, M. L. Burkhart, J. C. Cordova, R. M. Sorem, and B. Russell, Performance of Fischer-Tropsch Liquids with Oxygenates in a VW 1.9L TDI. SAE Paper 2001-01-3521.
4. W. D. Seider, J. D. Seader, and D. R. Lewin, Process Design Principals.
New York: Wiley, 1998, Ch. 10.
5. D. Deming, Oil: Are We Running Out? Second Wallace E. Pratt Memorial Conference, Petroleum Provinces of the 21st Century, January 1215, 2000; see http://geology.ou.edu/library/aapg_oil.pdf.
6. Canadas Oil Sands and Heavy Oil. Petroleum Communication Foundation. Available at http://www.centreforenergy.com/EEOS.
7. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations (facsimile of 1776 original).
Prometheus Books, 1991, p. 361.
8. http://waysandmeans.house.gov/hearings.asp?formmode =printfriendly&id=1059.
9. Brent D. Yacobucci, B. D. and J. Wornoch, RL30369: Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues. A CRS Report for Congress. See http://www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/energy/eng-59.cfm? &CFID=19293910&CFTOKEN=12099740#_1_1, March 22, 2000.
16. Lester B. Lave, W. M. Griffin, and H. Maclean, The Ethanol Answer to Carbon Emissions, Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 20012002, pp. 7378.
17. Emissions by Economic Sector. Excerpt from the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Emissions and Sinks: 19902000. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Program, Office of Atmospheric Programs, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, April 2002. http://www.epa.gov/ globalwarming/publications/emissions/index.html.
History of Conversion
of Thermal Energy to Work
Recommended Reading 1. Bathie, William W., Fundamentals of Gas Turbines, 2nd ed.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
2. Constant II, E. W., The Origins of the Turbojet Revolution. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.
3. Cumpsty, Nicholas, Jet Propulsion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
4. Garvin, R. V., Starting Something Big: The Commercial Emergence of GE Aircraft Engines. Reston, VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 1998.
5. Von Braun, Wehrner, and F. I. Ordway, III, History of Rocketry and Space Travel, 3rd ed. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1975.
6. Wilson, D. G., and Theodosios Korakianitis, The Design of High- Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
1. Academic American Encyclopedia, Grolier Inc., Danbury, CT, 1996, Vol. 17, p. 375.
2. Encyclopedia Americana, Grolier, Inc., Danbury, CT, 1997, Vol. 27, p. 241.
3. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1997, Vol. 17, p. 375.
4. The New Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1997, Vol. 18, p. 343.
5. The World Book Encyclopedia, World Book, Inc., Chicago, IL, 2000, Vol. 18, p. 413.
6. A History of the Automotive Internal Combustion Engine, SP-490, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., July 1976.
7. Cummins, C. Lyle, Jr., Internal Fire, Carnot Press, Lake Oswego, OR, 1976, Ch. 14.
8. Lilly, L. R., Ed., Diesel Engine Reference Book, Butterworths, London, 1984.
Elsevier US 0ssn05 5-7-2006 5:45p.m. Page No:157 History of Conversion of Thermal Energy to Work 157
1. See R. H. Thurston, Cornell University Press, Ithica, NY, 1939. This book was first published in 1878 and provides a detailed history of the inventions and technology developments that made the steam engine the key player in the industrial revolution.
2. Lester B. Lave, W. M. Griffin, and H. Maclean, The Ethanol Answer to Carbon Emissions. Issues in Science and Technology, Winter 20012002, pp. 7378.
4. 2000 National Design Contest Problem. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. New York, 1980.
5. EPA: Long-term diesel exposure can cause cancer, September 4, 2002.
Posted 8:28 A.M. EDT (1228GMT) at cnn.com.
1. http://www.sfcablecar.com/history.html, May 21, 2002.
2. Anthony Sampson. The Seven Sisters. New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1981, p. 184.
3. Keith Owen and Trevor Coley, Automotive Fuel Reference Book, 2nd ed. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1995, p. 21.
4. Hydrogen fuel of the future on Iceland, by Tom Karl Andersen, April AU1 26, 2003. See http://www.hydro.com/en/press_room/news/archive/ no_news_view/hydrogen_iceland/hydrogen_iceland_main_en.html.
5. Owen and Coley, p. 21.
6. Ibid., p. 7.
7. Ibid., p. 269.
8. J. M. Teague and K. K. Koyama, Methanol Supply Issues for Alternative Fuels Demonstration Programs. SAE Paper 952771.
9. http://www.oroboros.se/syntes.htm, May 22, 2002.
10. http://www.cheresources.com/ethanolzz.shtml, May 22, 2002.
11. Owen and Coley, p. 269.
12. http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/, May 22, 2002.
13. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/, May 22, 2002.
14. John B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.
McGraw Hill, 1988, p. 887.
15. M. Duvall, Advanced Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles, Reprint Report, Version 16, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, March 25, 2003.
16. G. J. Suppes, S. Lopes, and C. W. Chiu, Plug-in Fuel Cell Hybrids as Transition Technology to Hydrogen Infrastructure, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, January 2004.
17. Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles. Published by the Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. http://www.iags.org/pih.htm, 2003.
Production of Electricity
Recommended Reading 1. Bailey, B. F., The Principles of Dynamo Electric Machinery. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1915.
2. Brown, S. L., Electricity and Magnetism. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1934.
3. Franklin, W. S., and Barry MacNutt, The Elements of Electricity and Magnetism. London: The MacMillan Company, Ltd., 1908.
4. Hausmann, Eric, and E. P. Slack, Physics, 3rd ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1948.
5. Hobart, H. M., and A. G. Ellis, High Speed Dynamo Electric Machinery.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1908.
6. Patrick, D. R., and S. W. Fardo, Electrical Distribution Systems.
Lilburn, GA: The Fairmont Press, Inc., 1999.
7. , Rotating Electrical Machines and Power Systems. Lilburn, GA: The Fairmont Press, Inc., 1997.
8. Winder, J. J., Jr., Power Transformers, Principles and Applications.
New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2002.
1. R. W. Haywood, Analysis of Engineering Cycles, 4th ed. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1991.
2. Development of Technologies and Capabilities for Developing Coal, Oil, and Gas Energy Sources. Solicitation for Financial Assistance Applications No. DE-PS26-02NT41613, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, August 21, 2002.
Energy in Heating,
Ventilation, and Air
1. http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/ news_detail.html/news_id=6781.
2. Federal Register/Vol. 69, No. 158/Tuesday, August 17, 2004/Rules and Regulations.
Fort Hood, Texas, example.
4. Energy-Wise News, http://www.eeca.govt.nz/, Sept. 1998. AU2 http://www.eren.doe.gov/cities_counties/thermal.html.
Electrical Power as
Recommended Reading 1. Fuel Cell Report to Congress. Report ESECS EE-1973, U.S. Department of Energy, February 2003. Available at http://www.eere.energy.
2. Suppes, G. J., Plug-In HEV Roadmap to Hydrogen Economy. SAE Paper Number 2005-01-3830, 2005.
Elsevier US 0ssn09 5-7-2006 5:48p.m. Page No:248 248 Sustainable Nuclear Power
1. Reducing Californias Energy Dependence. Joint Agency Report of the California Energy Commission and California Resources Board, Report P600-03-005F, August 2003.
2. A. Frank, 30 Years of HEV Research Leading to Plug-in HEVs. PHEV Workshop, 2003.
3. M. Duvall, Advanced Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles. EPRI Report 1009299, May 2004.
4. G. J. Suppes, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Roadmap to Hydrogen Economy. SAE Paper 2005-01-3830.
5. G. J. Suppes, Plug-In Hybrid with Fuel Cell Battery Charger. Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 30, 2005, pp. 113121.
6. M. Anderman, Brief Assessment of Progress in EV Battery Technology Since the BTAP. June 2000 Report. Presentation available at www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/zevprog/2003rule/03board/anderman.pdf.
7. Fuel Cell Report to Congress. Report ESECS EE-1973, U.S.
Department of Energy, February 2003.
8. R. A. Hinrichs, and M. Kleinbach. Energy Its Use and the Environment, 3rd ed. New York: Brooks/Cole, 2002.
CHAPTER 10 Atomic Processes
1. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, Vols. 1 of 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., DOEHDBK- 1019/1-93, 1993.
2. http://www.aip.org/ May 15, 2002.
3. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/procyc.html, May 15, 2002.
4. Understanding Radiation. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ radiation/understand/.
5. Fact Sheet on Biological Effects of Radiation. Available at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/bioeffects- radiation.html.National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 93, 1987.
Recycling and Waste
Handling for Spent
1. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear energy Systems, Issued by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and Generation IV International Forum, December 2002, p. 1.
2. Nuclear Energy InstituteHigh Level Nuclear Waste Is Really Used Nuclear Fuel. Retrieved from http//www.nei.org/ index.asp?catnum=1&catid=14.
4. J-P. Adloff, and R. Guillaumont, Fundamentals of Radiochemistry, Ann Arbor: CRC Press, 1993, pp. 1520.
5. L. K. Roland, B. G. Jerry, and T. Gary, Eds., The Plutonium Story: Journals of Professor Glenn T. Seaborg, 19391946. Columbus, OH: Benefiel, Battelle Press, 1994.
6. B. B. Cunningham, and L. B. Werner, The First Separation of the Synthetic Element 94PU-239. In The Transuranium Elements, Research Papers, G. T. Seaborg, J. J. Katz, and W. M. Manningam, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1949, pp. 5178.
7. S. Groueff, Manhatten Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atomic Bomb. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1967, p. 9.
8. H. Thayer, Management of the Hanford Engineer Works in World War II. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers Press, 1996, p. 94.
9. S. Glasstone, Sourcebook on Atomic Energy, 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1967, pp. 519523.
10. S. G. Thompson, and G. T. Seaborg, Progr. in Nuclear Energy, Ser. III, Vol 1, 1956, p. 163.
11. Adloff and Guillaumont, p. 20.
12. M. Benedict, T. H. Pigford, and H. W. Levi, Nuclear Chemical Engineering, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981, pp. 458459.
13. H. Thayer, p. 17.
14. T. H. Siddall III, Solvent Extraction Processes Based on Tri-n-butyl Phosphate. In J F. Flagg, ed. Chemical Processing of Reactor Fuels.
New York: Academic Press, 1961, pp. 199207.
16. Benedict, Pigford, and Levi, p. 461.
17. Dwight Eigenhower, Atoms for Peace. Speach delivered to the U.N. General Assembly, Dec. 8, 1953, Idaho National Lab publication 03-GA51120-01.
Elsevier US 0ssn11 5-7-2006 6:09p.m. Page No:318 318 Sustainable Nuclear Power 18. R. G. Wymer, and B. L Vondra, Jr., Eds., Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1981, pp. 3941.
19. Ibid., p. 65.
20. R. G. Cochran and N. Tsoulfanidis, The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Analysis and Management, 2nd ed. LaGrange Park, IL: American Nuclear Society, 1990, p. 270.
21. Wymer and Vondra, Jr., pp. 6972.
24. R. A. Hinrichs, and M. Kleinbach, Energy Its Use and the Environment.
3rd Edition, Page 475, Brooks/Cole, New York, 2002.
25. Benedict, Pigford, and Levi, p. 475.
26. Wymer and Vondra, Jr., pp. 6768.
27. Wymer and Vondra, Jr., p. 92.
28. Cochran and Tsoulfanidis, p. 270, pag. 215.
29. Report to Congress on Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative: The Future Path for Advanced Spent Fuel Treatment and Transmutation Research. Prepared by the U.S. DOE, January 2003.
30. M. S. Thomas, M. A. Norato, G. F. Kessinger, R. A. Pierce, T. S. Rudisill, and J. D. Johnson, Demonstration of the UREX Solvent Extraction Process with Dresden Reactor Fuel Solution. Report WSRC-TR-2002-00444, U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS, Springfield, VA, 2002.
31. G. F. Vandegrift, M. C. Regalbuto, S. B. Asse, H. A. Arafat, A. L. Bekel, D. L. Bowers, J. P. Byrnes, M. C. Clark, J. F. Emery, J. R. Falkenburg, A. V. Gelas, L. D. Hafenrichter, R. A. Leonard, C. Peraira, K. J. Quigley, Y. Tsai, M. H. Vander Pol, and J. J. Laidler, Lab-Scale Demonstration of the UREX+ Process. WM04 Conference, February 29March 4, 2004, Tucson, AZ.
32. A. E. Waltar, and A. B. Reynolds, Fast Breeder Reactors. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981, pp. 2426.
33. History of Nuclear Energy, ANL-W, 1998. Retrieved from http:// www.anlw.anl.gov/anlw_history/general_history/gen_hist.html.
34. A Report to Congress on Electrometallurgical Treatment of Waste Forms. March 2001, pp. 46.
35. ANL-W HistoryReactors (EBR-II). Retrieved from http:// www.anlw.anl.gov/anlw_histroy/reactors/ebr_ii,html.
36. Electrochemical Process for Spent Fuel Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.cmt.anl.gov/science-technology/nuclear/.
37. Survey of Energy Resources: Part 1 Uranium. World Energy Council.
Available at http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/ reports/ser/uranium/uranium.asp.
39. Report to Congress Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative: Objectives, Approach, and Technology Summary. U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology, May 2005.
Elsevier US 0ssn11 5-7-2006 6:09p.m. Page No:319 Recycling and Waste Handling for Spent Nuclear Fuel 319 40. Personal conversation with Wes Berry. U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Comparison Report, FY 2004. Published by the U.S. DOE, September, 2004.
41. Report to Congress on Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative: The Future Path for Advanced Spent Fuel Treatment and Transmutation AU3 Research. Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology, January 2003. Available at http://www.ne.doe.gov/reports/AFCI_CongRpt2003.pdf.
Nuclear Power Plant
Recommended Reading Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Comparison Report, FY 2003, October 2003. Available at http://www.ne.doe.gov/ reports/reports.html.
1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan, Fiscal Year 2005, Vol. 1. Office of Advanced Nuclear Research, DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. Released March 2005, Executive Summary.
2. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative, 2004 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology.
3. Generation IV.
4. Ibid, p. 1.
Elsevier US 0ssn12 5-7-2006 6:09p.m. Page No:353 Nuclear Power Plant Design 353 5. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems, December 2002. Issued by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International Forum, p. 11.
6. Generation IV, pp. 2831.
7. Ibid, pp. 2328.
8. J. R. Howell, and R. O. Buckius, Fundamentals of Engineering Themodynamics, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992, pp. 425436.
9. Generation IV, pp. 3134.
10. Ibid, pp. 3941.
11. ANL-W HistoryReactors (EBR-II). Retrieved from http://www.anlw.anl.gov/anlw_history/reactors/ebr_ii.html.
12. R. L. Garwin, and G. Charpak, Megawatts and Megatons. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001, pp. 131135.
13. Generation IV, pp. 3538.
14. Garwin, and Charpak, p. 164.
16. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/tmi/ tmi.htm.
17. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation. Nuclear Plant, June 30 2004. Available at http://www.ne.doe.gov/reports/reports.html.
18. R. A. Hinrichs, and M. Kleinbach, EnergyIts Use and the Environment, 3rd ed. New York: Brooks/Cole, 2002, p. 477.
19. The U.S. Generation IV Implementation Strategy. U.S. DOE Publication 03-GA50439-06. September 2003.
1. N. Ilten, International Comparisons of Electricity Generation by Types and Costs. August 28, 2003. http://people.cs.uchicago.edu/ ¡«nilten/docs/final.pdf#search=Busbar%20Cost%20of%20Nuclear %20Power.
2. The Economic Future of Nuclear Power. Table 3-2. A study conducted by the University of Chicago, August 2004.
3. Ibid. Table 1-1.
4. Economic Future. Table 3-2.
5. Economic Future. Table 1-1.
6. Report on the Effect the Low-Enriched Uranium Delivery Under the HEU Agreement Between the Government of the United States and the Government of the Russian Federation Has on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries, and the Operation of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant, December 31, 2003.
7. M. S. Adams, Sustainable Energy from Nuclear Fission Power. National Academy of Engineering Publications, Volume 32, Number 4, Winter 2002.
Elsevier US 0ssn13 5-7-2006 6:34p.m. Page No:384 384 Sustainable Nuclear Power 8. R. A. Hinrichs, and M. Kleinbach. EnergyIts Use and the Environment, 3rd ed. New York: Brooks/Cole, 2002.
9. Analysis of Baseload Generation Alternatives, Big Stone Unit II. Burns & McDonnell, September 2005.